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Carbonate glasses can be formed routinely in the system K2CO3–MgCO3. The enthalpy of formation for one such 0.55K2CO3–0.45MgCO3 glass was determined at 298 K to be 115.00 ± 1.21 kJ/mol by drop solution calorimetry in molten sodium molybdate (3Na2O·MoO3) at 975 K. The corresponding heat of formation from oxides at 298 K was −261.12 ± 3.02 kJ/mol. This ternary glass is shown to be slightly metastable with respect to binary crystalline components (K2CO3 and MgCO3) and may be further stabilized by entropy terms arising from cation disorder and carbonate group distortions. This high degree of disorder is confirmed by 13C MAS NMR measurement of the average chemical shift tensor values, which show asymmetry of the carbonate anion to be significantly larger than previously reported values. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the structure of this carbonate glass reflects the strong interaction between the oxygen atoms in distorted carbonate anions and potassium cations.
Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) was applied at 15 sites with glacially-transported granite boulders in parts of northern and western Ireland and southwest Scotland that had been exposed by retreat of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) or Younger Dryas (YD) ice masses. Seven of these surfaces had previously been dated using terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) exposure-age dating. Application of the granite calibration equation of Tomkins et al. (2018c) indicated a close correspondence between the SHD ages and the TCN ages (within 1σ or 2σ uncertainties). These findings demonstrate that SHD ages can be of comparable accuracy, precision, and reliability to TCN ages and are a strong argument for the more extensive use of SHD in some Quaternary dating projects. However, surface ages obtained by both SHD and TCN dating should not be accepted uncritically; they must be assessed in relation to the wider geological, geomorphological, and geochronological evidence. Evaluation of eight SHD ages, for which corresponding TCN ages are not available, indicate that most are consistent with current theory and field evidence, but some anomalous age estimates occur.
Rapid identification of esophageal intubations is critical to avoid patient morbidity and mortality. Continuous waveform capnography remains the gold standard for endotracheal tube (ETT) confirmation, but it has limitations. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) may be a useful alternative for confirming ETT placement. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of paramedic-performed POCUS identification of esophageal intubations with and without ETT manipulation.
A prospective, observational study using a cadaver model was conducted. Local paramedics were recruited as subjects and each completed a survey of their demographics, employment history, intubation experience, and prior POCUS training. Subjects participated in a didactic session in which they learned POCUS identification of ETT location. During each study session, investigators randomly placed an ETT in either the trachea or esophagus of four cadavers, confirmed with direct laryngoscopy. Subjects then attempted to determine position using POCUS both without and with manipulation of the ETT. Manipulation of the tube was performed by twisting the tube. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to assess the results and the effects of previous paramedic experience.
During 12 study sessions, from March 2014 through December 2015, 57 subjects participated, evaluating a total of 228 intubations: 113 tracheal and 115 esophageal. Subjects were 84.0% male, mean age of 39 years (range: 22 - 62 years), with median experience of seven years (range: 0.6 - 39 years). Paramedics correctly identified ETT location in 158 (69.3%) cases without and 194 (85.1%) with ETT manipulation. The sensitivity and specificity of identifying esophageal location without ETT manipulation increased from 52.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.0-61.0) and 86.7% (95% CI, 81.0-93.0) to 87.0% (95% CI, 81.0-93.0) and 83.2% (95% CI, 0.76-0.90) after manipulation (P<.0001), without affecting specificity (P=.45). Subjects correctly identified 41 previously incorrectly identified esophageal intubations. Paramedic experience, previous intubations, and POCUS experience did not correlate with ability to identify tube location.
Paramedics can accurately identify esophageal intubations with POCUS, and manipulation improves identification. Further studies of paramedic use of dynamic POCUS to identify inadvertent esophageal intubations are needed.
LemaPC, O’BrienM, WilsonJ, St. JamesE, LindstromH, DeAngelisJ, CaldwellJ, MayP, ClemencyB.Avoid the Goose! Paramedic Identification of Esophageal Intubation by Ultrasound. Prehosp Disaster Med.2018;33(4):406–410
BACKGROUND: IGTS is a rare phenomenon of paradoxical germ cell tumor (GCT) growth during or following treatment despite normalization of tumor markers. We sought to evaluate the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of IGTS in patients in 21 North-American and Australian institutions. METHODS: Patients with IGTS diagnosed from 2000-2017 were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Out of 739 GCT diagnoses, IGTS was identified in 33 patients (4.5%). IGTS occurred in 9/191 (4.7%) mixed-malignant GCTs, 4/22 (18.2%) immature teratomas (ITs), 3/472 (0.6%) germinomas/germinomas with mature teratoma, and in 17 secreting non-biopsied tumours. Median age at GCT diagnosis was 10.9 years (range 1.8-19.4). Male gender (84%) and pineal location (88%) predominated. Of 27 patients with elevated markers, median serum AFP and Beta-HCG were 70 ng/mL (range 9.2-932) and 44 IU/L (range 4.2-493), respectively. IGTS occurred at a median time of 2 months (range 0.5-32) from diagnosis, during chemotherapy in 85%, radiation in 3%, and after treatment completion in 12%. Surgical resection was attempted in all, leading to gross total resection in 76%. Most patients (79%) resumed GCT chemotherapy/radiation after surgery. At a median follow-up of 5.3 years (range 0.3-12), all but 2 patients are alive (1 succumbed to progressive disease, 1 to malignant transformation of GCT). CONCLUSION: IGTS occurred in less than 5% of patients with GCT and most commonly after initiation of chemotherapy. IGTS was more common in patients with IT-only on biopsy than with mixed-malignant GCT. Surgical resection is a principal treatment modality. Survival outcomes for patients who developed IGTS are favourable.
The inadequacy of current diagnostics for the detection of low worm burdens in humans means that schistosomiasis mansoni is more widespread than previously acknowledged. With the inception of mass drug treatment programmes aimed at disease elimination and the advent of human vaccine trials, the need for more sensitive diagnostics is evident. In this review, we evaluate the merits and limitations of the principal diagnostic methods, namely detection of eggs in faeces; anti-schistosome antibodies in serum; parasite-derived proteins and glycans in serum or urine; parasite DNA in blood, faeces or urine. Only in the baboon model, where actual worm burden is determined by portal perfusion, have faecal smear and circulating antigen methods been calibrated, and shown to have thresholds of detection of 10–19 worm pairs. There is scope for improvement in all the four methods of detection, e.g. the identification of single targets for host antibodies to improve the specificity of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Despite recent advances in the definition of the schistosome secretome, there have been no comprehensive biomarker investigations of parasite products in the urine of infected patients. Certainly, the admirable goal of eliminating schistosomiasis will not be achieved unless individuals with low worm burdens can be diagnosed.
The effect of the ingestion of diets containing either myo-inositol or exogenous phytase on plasma metabolites was examined using 29 kg barrows. The diets were: control (maize, soya, rapeseed, rice bran), control plus 2 g/kg myo-inositol, control plus 1000 phytase units (FYT)/kg or 3000 FYT/kg exogenous phytase. Pigs were housed in a PigTurn device and blood was collected, from jugular catheters, via an automated system at −30, (30 min before feeding), 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300 and 360 min post-feeding. The addition of 2 g/kg myo-inositol to the basal diet resulted in an increase in plasma myo-inositol concentration that was evident 45–60 min after diet introduction and persisted to 360 min post-feeding. Similarly, supplementation of the basal diet with either 1000 or 3000 FYT/kg exogenous phytase resulted in an increase in plasma myo-inositol concentration that was still rising 360 min post-feeding. Plasma P concentration was increased over time by the addition of 1000 and 3000 FYT/kg phytase, but not by the addition of myo-inositol. Other plasma metabolites examined were not affected by dietary treatment. It can be concluded that oral delivery of myo-inositol results in rapid increase in plasma myo-inositol concentrations that peak approximately 45–60 min after feeding. Use of supplemental phytase achieves similar increases in myo-inositol concentration in plasma but the appearance is more gradual. Furthermore, supplementation of pig diets with exogenous phytase results in rapid appearance of P in plasma that may be sustained over time relative to diets with no added phytase.
Babesia are intraerythrocytic parasites of importance worldwide within the fields of human and veterinary medicine, as some Babesia sp., including Babesia microti are potentially zoonotic and can cause fatal disease in both humans and animals. The aims of this study were to use a nested PCR (amplifying the 18S rRNA gene) to determine the presence and species of Babesia parasite DNA found in blood (n = 47) and spleen (n = 47) samples collected from Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) in Scotland. The results showed 28/47 (59·6%) blood and 14/47 (29·8%) spleen samples tested positive for the presence of Babesia DNA. Initial sequence analysis of the Babesia DNA identified three distinct sequence types (submitted to GenBank KX528553, KX528554 and KX528555), which demonstrated ⩾99% identity to Babesia sp. parasites previously identified in badgers in Spain (KT223484 and KT223485). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three isolates are closely related to Babesia annae, B. microti and other Piroplasmida species found in wildlife. Further sequence analysis of the samples demonstrated that the badgers were routinely infected with more than one parasite isolate and there was also evidence of genetic recombination between the Babesia parasite isolates (submitted to GenBank KY250472 – KY250477)
Older care home residents are excluded from the sexual imaginary. Based on a consultative study involving interviews with three residents, three female spouses of residents and two focus groups of care home staff (N = 16), making an overall sample of 22 study participants, we address the neglected subject of older residents' sexuality and intimacy needs. Using thematic analysis, we highlight how residents’ and spouses’ accounts of sexuality and intimacy can reflect an ageist erotophobia occurring within conditions of panoptical control that help construct residents as post-sexual. However, not all accounts contributed to making older residents’ sexuality appear invisible or pathological. Some stories indicated recuperation of identities and the normalisation of relationships with radically changed individuals, e.g. because of a dementia. We also examine care home staff accounts of the discursive obstacles that frustrate meeting residents’ needs connected with sexuality and intimacy. Simultaneously, we explore staffs’ creative responses to dilemmas which indicate approaches to sexuality driven more by observed needs than erotophobic anxiety and governance, as well as panoptical surveillance.
The success of scaling out depends on a clear understanding of the factors that affect adoption of grain legumes and account for the dynamism of those factors across heterogeneous contexts of sub-Saharan Africa. We reviewed literature on adoption of grain legumes and other technologies in sub-Saharan Africa and other developing countries. Our review enabled us to define broad factors affecting different components of the scaling out programme of N2Africa and the scales at which those factors were important. We identified three strategies for managing those factors in the N2Africa scaling out programme: (i) testing different technologies and practices; (ii) evaluating the performance of different technologies in different contexts; and (iii) monitoring factors that are difficult to predict. We incorporated the review lessons in a design to appropriately target and evaluate technologies in multiple contexts across scales from that of the farm to whole countries. Our implementation of this design has only been partially successful because of competing reasons for selecting activity sites. Nevertheless, we observe that grain legume species have been successfully targeted for multiple biophysical environments across sub-Saharan Africa, and to social and economic contexts within countries. Rhizobium inoculant and legume specific fertiliser blends have also been targeted to specific contexts, although not in all countries. Relatively fewer input and output marketing models have been tested due to public–private partnerships, which are a key mechanism for dissemination in the N2Africa project.
The collective response of electrons in an ultrathin foil target irradiated by an ultraintense (
) laser pulse is investigated experimentally and via 3D particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that if the target is sufficiently thin that the laser induces significant radiation pressure, but not thin enough to become relativistically transparent to the laser light, the resulting relativistic electron beam is elliptical, with the major axis of the ellipse directed along the laser polarization axis. When the target thickness is decreased such that it becomes relativistically transparent early in the interaction with the laser pulse, diffraction of the transmitted laser light occurs through a so called ‘relativistic plasma aperture’, inducing structure in the spatial-intensity profile of the beam of energetic electrons. It is shown that the electron beam profile can be modified by variation of the target thickness and degree of ellipticity in the laser polarization.
Limited continuity of care, poor communication between healthcare providers, and ineffective self-management are barriers to recovery as seniors transition back to the community following an Emergency Department (ED) visit or hospitalization. The intensive geriatric service worker (IGSW) role is a new service developed in southern Ontario, Canada to address gaps for seniors transitioning home from acute care to prevent rehospitalization and premature institutionalization through the provision of intensive support and follow-up to ensure adherence to care plans, facilitate communication with care providers, and promote self-management. This study describes the IGSW role and provides preliminary evidence of its impact on clients, caregivers and the broader health system.
This mixed methods evaluation included a chart audit of all clients served, tracking of the achievement of goals for IGSW involvement, and interviews with clients and caregivers and other key informants.
During the study period, 632 clients were served. Rates of goal achievement ranged from 25%–87% and in cases where achieved, the extent of IGSW involvement mostly exceeded recommendations. IGSWs were credited with improving adherence with treatment recommendations, increasing awareness and use of community services, and improving self-management, which potentially reduced ED visits and hospitalizations and delayed institutionalization.
The IGSW role has the potential to improve supports for seniors and facilitate more appropriate use of health system resources, and represents a promising mechanism for improving the integration and coordination of care across health sectors.