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How, in the 1970s, did a generation whose motto was “never trust anyone over thirty” come to grips with an iconic 1960s rock band whose members were entering their mid-thirties? On the whole, not very well. Mick Jagger, in an unguarded moment, wistfully observed: “I’m afraid rock and roll has no future … It’s only recycled past.”1 The mid-1970s was a time of considerable turmoil and transition for the Stones, and for rock music in general.2 The music industry was still sorting itself out after the breakup of the Beatles at the very beginning of the 1970s. Historically, the spread of the bucolic culture envisioned by Woodstock already seemed in rot. The 1970s were riven with crises – Vietnam, Watergate, labor strife in Britain, the Troubles in Northern Ireland, global concerns about pollution and overpopulation, the energy crisis, planned obsolescence, the Munich Olympic massacre, the Biafran War, the India-Pakistan War, and the Yom Kippur War, are only a few of the most important calamities that mark the decade. Amidst this turbulence – often simplistically chronicled in rock history by contrasting the Stones’ dystopian concert at Altamont with the utopian ideals of Woodstock – the Rolling Stones faced a novel predicament: how to remain at the forefront of rock while entering a stage of life more traditionally associated with conventional adulthood.
Recent research has shown that children often learn what to believe by attending to the claims of other people. Similarly, they often learn how to act by attending to the actions of other people. Moreover, in each of these two domains, children are selective in their learning – they prefer to endorse and to emulate individuals who, as representatives of the surrounding culture, can serve as good models. I argue that this type of selective social learning also plays a major role in children’s emotional development. Although young children may encounter some situations that have a universal biological significance – for example a steep cliff or a sudden loud noise – the emotional implications of many encounters, especially with artefacts, people and foods, are likely to vary from one culture to another. Children can learn to perceive these encounters through the distinctive emotional lens of their own culture if they attend to and adopt the expressive appraisals of individuals who are representative of their culture. Such appraisals may be conveyed non-verbally, as in the classic social-referencing paradigm, but they can also be conveyed verbally.
Individuals experiencing different medical conditions, as well as healthy volunteers, may often be interested in trial participation, and researchers similarly need to find participants to advance medical knowledge. The ResearchMatch Trials Today clinical trial searching tool leverages clinicaltrials.gov data to enable potential participants to look for trial opportunities relevant to their situation. To facilitate expanded use of this tool, we undertook a national digital public awareness campaign to increase awareness of Trials Today among members of the general public.
The awareness campaign promoted Trials Today using Facebook and digital banner messages in 2017, encompassing nine cities across the US. The digital strategy was complemented by print media in several outlets. We employed descriptive statistics to summarize campaign metrics and site usage data during the campaign.
The campaign was successful in increasing visits to Trials Today, with 142,303 sessions logged during its run, as compared to pre-campaign data indicating 104,688 total sessions during the entire two year period since the site’s inception. The city-specific click-through rate for all digital impressions, combining Facebook and banner messaging, ranged from 0.50% to 1.09%, resulting in a cost-per-click range of $0.69 to $1.15. In addition, visitors conducted 29,697 searches and viewed individual trial records 173,512 times.
The public awareness campaign was successful in increasing use of the ResearchMatch Trials Today clinical trial searching tool. Our findings support the value of digital media messaging as a cost-effective vehicle for promoting clinical trial awareness, especially for chronic ailments.
An increase in “unusual” news with negative sentiment predicts an increase in stock market volatility. Unusual positive news forecasts lower volatility. Our analysis is based on over 360,000 articles on 50 large financial companies, published during the period of 1996–2014. Unusualness interacted with sentiment forecasts company-specific and aggregate volatility several months ahead. Furthermore, unusual news is reflected more slowly in aggregate volatility than company-specific volatility. News measures from articles explicitly about the “market,” which are more easily accessible to investors, do not forecast volatility. The observed responses of volatility to news may be explained by attention constraints on investors.
After the Civil War, northern Methodists undertook a successful mission to recruit a biracial membership in the South. Their Freedmen's Aid Society played a key role in outreach to African Americans, but when the denomination decided to use Society funds in aid of schools for Southern whites, a national controversy erupted over the refusal of Chattanooga University to admit African Americans. Caught between a principled commitment to racial brotherhood and the pressures of expediency to accommodate a growing white supremacist commitment to segregation, Methodists engaged in an agonized and heated debate over whether schools intended for whites should be allowed to exclude blacks. Divisions within the leadership of the Methodist Episcopal Church caught the attention of the national press and revealed the limits of even the most well-intentioned efforts to advance racial equality in the years after Reconstruction.