To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Voluntary assisted dying (VAD) was legalized in Victoria, Australia, in June 2019. Victoria was the first jurisdiction in the world to require doctors to undertake training before providing VAD. This study examines data from doctors who completed the mandatory training in the first 2 years of the VAD system's operation (up to 30 June 2021). It describes the doctors who are undertaking VAD training, their post-training attitudes toward VAD participation, and their experiences of the mandatory training.
Through the online training, doctors completed a short demographic survey and undertook formal assessment of knowledge (90% pass mark). They also were invited to complete an optional survey evaluating the training.
In total, 289 doctors passed the training, most commonly males (56%) aged 36–65 years (82%) from an urban location (72%). Most were more than 10 years post fellowship (68%) and practising as general practitioners (51%) or medical oncologists (16%). The training most commonly took 6 h (range 2 h to over 9 h). Most doctors passed the assessment at the first (65%) or second (19%) attempt. Almost all participants (97%) found the training helpful or very helpful and most reported being confident or very confident in their knowledge (93%) and application (88%) of the VAD legislation.
Significance of results
Doctors reported the training was helpful and improved their confidence in knowing the law and applying it in clinical practice. The profile of trained doctors (particularly their location and specialty) suggests continued growth of participating doctors is needed to facilitate patient access to VAD. It is important that this safeguard does not discourage doctors’ participation.
The primary objective of this study was to co-design and conduct a pilot evaluation of a novel, immersive virtual reality (VR) experience for procedural pain and anxiety in an Australian healthcare setting. The secondary objective was to identify key parameters that can facilitate the development and implementation of VR experiences in clinical practice.
A qualitative, Design Box method was selected for co-design. It was used with adult burns survivors and adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer, and healthcare professionals from these fields to identify the practical and design parameters required for the application of VR technology within the clinical setting. Results informed the development of the VR experience that was evaluated by consumers and healthcare professionals, who completed qualitative surveys. Thematic analysis was conducted on co-design notes and survey data.
Procedural pain and management was a challenge for both cohorts, but particularly the burns cohort. Anxiety was significant challenge for both cohorts. Boredom and quality of life was a significant challenge, particularly for the AYA oncology cohort. These results informed the development of “A Wanderers Tale,” an Australiana-themed, gaze-controlled VR application for Oculus Quest platforms. Thematic analysis results suggest that cultural preferences, procedural contexts of use, and agency through customization and interaction are three parameters to consider when creating or selecting VR experiences for application in health.
Significance of results
This work describes a novel method for the use VR as an adjuvant pain management tool in patients with burns and cancer. The VR experience may provide a culturally, practice and procedure-appropriate tool in comparable settings of care. The study also describes interdisciplinary co-design and evaluation approaches that can help maximize the use of VR to improve healthcare approaches that address clinical challenges in pain, anxiety, and quality of life for patients while in hospital.
Caregiver satisfaction and experience surveys help health professionals to understand, measure, and improve the quality of care provided for patients and their families.
Our aim was to explore caregiver perceptions of the care received from Australian specialist palliative care services.
Caregivers of patients receiving palliative care in services registered with Australia's Palliative Care Outcomes Collaboration were invited to participate in a caregiver survey. The survey included the FAMCARE–2 and four items from the Ongoing Needs Identification: Caregiver Profile questionnaire.
Surveys were completed by 1,592 caregivers from 49 services. Most respondents reported high satisfaction and positive experiences. Caregivers receiving care from community-based palliative care teams were less satisfied with the management of physical symptoms and comfort (odds ratio [OR] = 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI95%] = 0.14, 0.59), with patient psychological care (OR = 0.56; CI95% = 0.32, 0.98), and with family support (OR = 0.52; CI95% = 0.35, 0.77) than caregivers of patients in an inpatient setting. If aged over 60 years, caregivers were less likely to have their information needs met regarding available support services (OR = 0.98; CI95% = 0.97, 0.98) and carer payments (OR = 0.99; CI95% = 0.98, 1.00). Also, caregivers were less likely to receive adequate information about carer payments if located in an outer regional area (OR = 0.41; CI95% = 0.25, 0.64). With practical training, caregivers receiving care from community services reported inadequate information provision to support them in caring for patients (OR = 0.60; CI95% = 0.45, 0.81).
Significance of Results:
While our study identified caregivers as having positive and satisfactory experiences across all domains of care, there is room for improvement in the delivery of palliative care across symptom management, as well as patient and caregiver support, especially in community settings. Caregiver surveys can facilitate the identification and evaluation of both patients' and caregivers' experiences, satisfaction, distress, and unmet needs.
The positioning and meaning of palliative care within the healthcare system lacks clarity which adds a level of complexity to the process of transition to palliative care. This study explores the transition to the palliative care process in the acute care context of metastatic melanoma.
A theoretical framework drawing on interpretive and critical traditions informs this research. The pragmatism of symbolic interactionism and the critical theory of Habermas brought a broad orientation to the research. Integration of the theoretical framework and grounded-theory methods facilitated data generation and analysis of 29 interviews with patients, family carers, and healthcare professionals.
The key analytical findings depict a scope of palliative care that was uncertain for users of the system and for those working within the system. Becoming “palliative” is not a defined event; nor is there unanimity around referral to a palliative care service. As such, ambiguity and tension contribute to the difficulties involved in negotiating the transition to palliative care.
Significance of Results:
Our findings point to uncertainty around the scopes of practice in the transition to palliative care. The challenge in the transition process lies in achieving greater coherency of care within an increasingly specialized healthcare system. The findings may not only inform those within a metastatic melanoma context but may contribute more broadly to palliative practices within the acute care setting.
This study aims to explore moderation and mediation roles of caregiver self-efficacy between subjective caregiver burden and (a) behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD) of dementia; and (b) social support.
A cross-sectional study with 137 spouse caregivers of dementia patients was conducted in Shanghai. We collected demographic information for the caregiver–patient dyads, as well as information associated with dementia-related impairments, caregiver social support, caregiver self-efficacy, and SF-36.
Multiple regression analysis showed that caregiver self-efficacy was a moderator both between BPSD and subjective caregiver burden, and social support and subjective caregiver burden. Results also showed a partial mediation effect of caregiver self-efficacy on the impact of BPSD on subjective caregiver burden, and a mediation effect of social support on subjective caregiver burden. Caregiver self-efficacy and subjective burden significantly influenced BPSD and social support.
Caregiver self-efficacy played an important role in the paths by which the two factors influenced subjective burden. Enhancing caregiver self-efficacy for symptom management (particularly BPSD) can be an essential strategy for determining interventions to support dementia caregivers in China, and possibly in other countries.
Objective: Parents coping with a diagnosis of advanced cancer
experience distress and guilt about the impact of the disease on their
children but report that there are few resources specific to advanced
disease to guide and support them in discussions with their children.
Although some resources have been developed to assist parents with
advanced cancer, it appears that these are not widely disseminated.
Methods: To determine the need for a brief resource that
could be given to parents at the point of diagnosis of advanced cancer,
including its content, in-depth interviews were conducted with eight women
with advanced breast cancer.
Results: Women confirmed that they had received minimal
assistance from health professionals in discussing the diagnosis with
their children, and even when professional counselors were accessed they
were not always attuned to the specific needs of parents with advanced
cancer. Women felt frustrated that information they did access focused on
early disease and lacked the details women felt they needed in coping with
advanced cancer. Women felt that there was a need for a brief resource
that reassured parents about the impact of the cancer on their children,
including practical strategies to help them cope and examples of the ways
other parents had responded to difficult questions such as about parental
death. A draft resource was developed, critically reviewed by the
participants, and their comments incorporated into a final version.
Significance of results: This article expands on the themes
highlighted by women as important to assist parents with advanced cancer,
including the final resource that was developed.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.