To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
It is unknown how much variation in adult mental health problems is associated with differences between societal/cultural groups, over and above differences between individuals.
To test these relative contributions, a consortium of indigenous researchers collected Adult Self-Report (ASR) ratings from 16 906 18- to 59-year-olds in 28 societies that represented seven culture clusters identified in the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavioral Effectiveness study (e.g. Confucian, Anglo). The ASR is scored on 17 problem scales, plus a personal strengths scale. Hierarchical linear modeling estimated variance accounted for by individual differences (including measurement error), society, and culture cluster. Multi-level analyses of covariance tested age and gender effects.
Across the 17 problem scales, the variance accounted for by individual differences ranged from 80.3% for DSM-oriented anxiety problems to 95.2% for DSM-oriented avoidant personality (mean = 90.7%); by society: 3.2% for DSM-oriented somatic problems to 8.0% for DSM-oriented anxiety problems (mean = 6.3%); and by culture cluster: 0.0% for DSM-oriented avoidant personality to 11.6% for DSM-oriented anxiety problems (mean = 3.0%). For strengths, individual differences accounted for 80.8% of variance, societal differences 10.5%, and cultural differences 8.7%. Age and gender had very small effects.
Overall, adults' self-ratings of mental health problems and strengths were associated much more with individual differences than societal/cultural differences, although this varied across scales. These findings support cross-cultural use of standardized measures to assess mental health problems, but urge caution in assessment of personal strengths.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health challenge negatively affecting victims’ health. Telomere length (TL), a marker for biological ageing, might be reflective of the mechanisms through which IPV leads to adverse health outcomes. The objective of the current study was to explore the association between IPV and leucocyte TL.
We conducted an analysis using a subset of the UK Biobank (N = 144 049). Physical, sexual and emotional IPV were reported by the participants. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. TL was assayed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We used multivariable linear regressions to test the associations between IPV and TL adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, education, as well as symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in a sensitivity analysis.
After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, any IPV was associated with 0.02-s.d. shorter TL (β = −0.02, 95% CI −0.04 to −0.01). Of the three types of IPV, physical violence had a marginally stronger association (β = −0.05, 95% CI −0.07 to −0.02) than the other two types. The associations of numbers of IPV and TL showed a dose–response pattern whereby those who experienced all three types of IPV types had the shortest TL (β = −0.07, 95% CI −0.12 to −0.03), followed by those who experienced two types (β = −0.04, 95% CI −0.07 to −0.01). Following additional adjustment for symptoms of depression and PTSD, the associations were slightly attenuated but the general trend by number of IPVs remained.
Victims of IPV, particularly those exposed to multiple types of IPVs, had shorter TL indicative of accelerated biological ageing. Given that all three types of IPV are linked to TL, clinical practitioners need to comprehensively identify all types of IPV and those who received multiple types. Further studies should explore the association of violence with changes in TL over time, as well as to which extent biological ageing is a mechanistic factor.
To cope with the rising demand for psychological treatment, evidence-based low-intensity cognitive behavioural therapy (LiCBT) delivered by trained para-professionals was introduced internationally.
This pilot study aimed at examining the effectiveness of LiCBT in Hong Kong.
This study was of an uncontrolled pre- and post-treatment design, testing LiCBT at a local community mental health centre in Hong Kong. Two hundred and eighty-five Chinese adult help-seekers to the centre attended two or more sessions of LiCBT delivered by trained para-professionals. These participants also rated their depression and anxiety on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 (GAD-7), respectively, at pre- and post-treatment.
Comparison of the pre- and post-treatment PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scores of 285 participants indicated significant improvements in depression and anxiety with large effect sizes (depression: d = 0.87; anxiety: d = 0.95). For those participants reaching the clinical level of either depression and/or anxiety at pre-treatment (n = 229, 80.4%), they reported even larger effect sizes (depression: d = 1.00; anxiety: d = 1.15). The recovery rate was 55.9% with a reliable improvement rate of 63.9%. An average of 5.6 sessions was offered to the participants with each session spanning a mean of 42 minutes. The baseline clinical conditions and participants’ educational level were predictive of post-treatment recovery.
The results supported the effectiveness and cost-efficiency of LiCBT for depression and anxiety at a Hong Kong community mental health centre. The effect sizes and the recovery and reliable improvement rates achieved were comparable to those reported from countries such as the UK and Australia.
In this work, a shorting control (SC) scheme is integrated into a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) synchronous rectifier for the output voltage regulation of a wireless power supply. The rectifier is designed to operate in a parallel tuned pickup with a 500 mW output power capability for biomedical implants. Without any additional components, the proposed SC method enables the power pickup to operate with high efficiency under variable coupling conditions while maintaining the required load power to keep the output voltage constant. Desired operating conditions are achieved with increased power transfer capability at weak magnetic coupling conditions and higher power efficiency at strong coupling. A novel derivation describes the change in efficiency with SC duty ratio. Experimental validation is completed with an original custom CMOS integrated rectifier with embedded SC. It is demonstrated that the proposed SC method can increase the overall secondary pickup power transfer efficiency by 14% as the magnetic coupling increases to the stronger end.
Ultrasonic Power Transfer (UPT) has been developed as an alternative solution for achieving wireless power transfer. This paper proposes a new model describing UPT systems with tightly coupled piezoelectric transducers firmly bound to solid media. The model is derived from the short-circuit admittance of the system measured from the primary transducer. The mechanical characteristics of the system are modeled with parallel LCR branches, which reveal the fundamental relationships between the power transfer characteristics of the tightly coupled UPT system and system parameters. The loading conditions for achieving the maximum power transfer are identified, and the operating frequencies corresponding to the peak power transfer points for variable loads are determined. A practical UPT system is built with two 28 kHz Langevin-type piezoelectric transducers connected to a 5 mm-thick aluminum plate, and the practical results have verified the accuracy of the proposed model.
Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulties with executive function and impulse control which may improve with age.
To map the brain correlates of executive function in ADHD and determine age-related changes in reaction times and brain volumes.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and control groups were compared on the change task measures of response inhibition (stop signal reaction time, SSRT) and shifting (change response reaction time, CRRT). Voxel-wise magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlations of reaction times and grey matter volume were determined, along with bivariate correlations of reaction times, brain volumes and age.
Individuals in the ADHD group had longer SSRTs and CRRTs. Anterior cingulate, striatal and medial temporal volumes highly correlated with SSRT. Striatal and cerebellar volumes strongly correlated with CRRT. Older children had faster reaction times and larger regional brain volumes. In controls, orbitofrontal, medial temporal and cerebellar volumes correlated with CRRT but not SSRT. Neither reaction times nor regional brain volumes were strongly age-dependent.
Our evidence supports delayed brain maturation in ADHD and implies that some features of ADHD improve with age.
We investigated the degradation mechanism of GaN LEDs due to the application of a high d.c. stressing current. To identify the underlying process for device failure we examined the effects of the InGaN quantum well growth parameters on the hot-electron hardness of the devices. Systematic characterizations on the degradations in the microstructural, thermoreflectance, and low frequency noise properties of the devices were performed.
This study aimed at testing whether there were different types of dysfunctional schemas and cognitive distortions that could help to differentiate three emotional/behavioural problems, i.e., anxiety, depression, and aggression, from each other. Five hundred and eighty-one Chinese adolescents from five mainstream high schools in Hong Kong were recruited and completed several self-report questionnaires. Bivariate correlation showed an indiscriminate pattern of association between dysfunctional schemas, cognitive distortions, and the three emotional/behavioural problems. However, when the effects of the confounding correlated emotional/behavioural problems were controlled in regression analysis, different problems did show some specific association with different types of dysfunctional schemas and/or cognitive distortions. Despite some inconsistency, these findings generally supported a specificity hypothesis. Cognitive variables were thus not only relevant in understanding psychopathology, but their different patterns of association with anxiety, depression, and aggression also supported the separability of these three emotional/behavioural problems, despite their significant correlation.
This study examined the prevalence and risk of psychiatric disturbances and suicidal
behaviours among the peers of suicide attempters and completers. The subjects were selected
from high schools with and without history of student suicides in the past 3 years. The
psychiatric disturbances (as measured by the YSR and CBCL), suicidal behaviours, drug
use, and a wide range of potential risk factors were measured. About a quarter of the peers
of suicide completers and attempters were probable psychiatric cases and 15–21% of them
reported suicidal acts. The increased risk of psychiatric disturbances and suicidal behaviours
were still evident after controlling for age, sex, and potential risk factors. The presence of
psychiatric disturbances could not wholly account for the increased odds of suicidal
behaviours. Peers of suicide attempters carried a higher risk than peers of suicide completers.
The close friends of suicide completers were particularly at risk of internalising problems,
whereas the close friends of suicide attempters were at high risk of externalising problems.
The peers of suicide completers and attempters represent a high-risk group for psychiatric
disturbances and suicidal behaviours. The specific association of different types of psychiatric
disturbances in the peers of suicide completers and attempters suggested that different risk
mechanisms might be in operation within these peer groups.
A community sample of 405 adolescents were given the
Youth Self-Report Form (YSR) and
the Children's Negative Cognitive Errors Questionnaire
(CNCEQ). Both regression and
group comparison analyses, using the full sample and a
subset of extreme scorers,
respectively, indicated that internalising problems were
specifically associated with the
various forms of cognitive distortions assessed, namely,
selective abstraction, personalising,
overgeneralisation, and catastrophising. Furthermore, they
displayed a curvilinear relationship; as the severity of
internalising problems increased, the magnitude of cognitive
distortions grew positively at a quadratic rate, displaying a
U-shaped upward curve.
However, in view of the potential measurement bias of CNCEQ
problems, the conclusion was qualified. Although our
results found some specific
event/schema-linked cognitive distortions that
distinguished internalising from externalising
problems, we could not conclude that the latter were free
from any other event/schema-linked cognitive distortions
that the CNCEQ might have failed to elicit.
This study was undertaken to examine the validity of different diagnostic definitions of hyperactivity in a Chinese population. Estimates of the prevalence of hyperactivity were made according to these different diagnostic definitions.
In a two-stage epidemiological study of hyperactivity in Hong Kong, 3069 Chinese schoolboys were screened by questionnaires; and a stratified sample of 611 of them entered a second stage for more detailed diagnostic assessment.
Children with hyperkinetic disorder (ICD–10) or ADDH (DSM–III) both displayed significant hyperactive symptoms, but with somewhat different external correlates; hyperkinetic disorder tended to show more neurodevelopmental impairments, ADDH more cognitive and educational difficulties. These findings raise the possibility of heterogeneity in the disorders present with hyperactivity. The DSM–III–R category of ADHD was more common, and those extra cases, that did not overlap with ADDH or hyperkinetic disorder, included children with no obvious behavioural, cognitive or neurodevelopmental impairments. Hence ADHD may be an over-inclusive category. Prevalence rates for hyperkinetic disorder, ADDH and ADHD were respectively 0.78%, 6.1% and 8.9%.
A disorder of hyperactivity does exist in the Chinese culture, displaying the same kinds of symptomatology and external correlates as in the West. The prevalence rates of hyperkinetic disorder and ADDH in Chinese schoolboys are on the low side when compared to those reported in Western studies.
A representative sample of 855 Hong-Kong Chinese children aged 36–48 months were assessed using the BSQ and the PBCL. Good reliability for both instruments were found. For the BSQ and PBCL, 12.75% and 27.5% were above the cut-off points of 10+ and 12 + respectively and 5.9% were above both cut-off points. In the second stage, 234 subjects were recruited by stratified random sampling according to the results of the screening stage. A clinician interviewed the parent, child and teacher before making a diagnosis. The prevalence of behaviour disorder was: nil, 53.7%; dubious, 23.1 %; mild, 18.0%; moderate, 4.5%; and severe, 0.7%. There were significantly more boys in the categories mild, moderate and severe.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.