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The administration of naloxone therapy is restricted by scope of practice to Advanced Life Support (ALS) in many Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems throughout the United States. In Delaware’s two-tiered EMS system, Basic Life Support (BLS) often arrives on-scene prior to ALS, but BLS providers were not previously authorized to administer naloxone. Through a BLS naloxone pilot study, the researchers sought to evaluate BLS naloxone administration and timing compared to ALS.
After undergoing specialized training, BLS providers would be able to appropriately administer naloxone to opioid overdose patients in a more timely manner than ALS providers.
This was a retrospective, observational study using data collected from February 2014 through May 2015 throughout a state BLS naloxone pilot program. A total of 14 out of 72 state BLS agencies participated in the study. Pilot BLS agencies attended a training session on the indications and administration of naloxone, and then were authorized to carry and administer naloxone. Researchers then compared vital signs and the time of BLS arrival to administration of naloxone by BLS and ALS. Data were analyzed using paired and independent sample t-tests, as well as chi-square, as appropriate.
A total of 131 incidents of naloxone administration were reviewed. Of those, 62 patients received naloxone by BLS (pilot group) and 69 patients received naloxone by ALS (control group). After naloxone administration, BLS patients showed improvements in heart rate (HR; P < .01), respiratory rate (RR; P < .01), and pulse oximetry (spO2; P < .01); ALS patients also showed improvement in RR (P < .01), and in spO2 (P = .005). There was no significant improvement in HR for ALS providers (P = .189).
There was a significant difference in arrival time of BLS to the time of naloxone administration between the two groups, with shorter times in the BLS group compared to the ALS group (1.9 minutes versus 9.8 minutes; P < .01); BLS administration was 7.8 minutes faster when compared to ALS administration (95% CI, 6.2-9.3 minutes).
Patients improved similarly and received naloxone therapy sooner when treated by BLS agencies carrying naloxone than those who awaited ALS arrival. All EMS systems should consider allowing BLS to carry and administer naloxone for an effective and potentially faster naloxone administration when treating respiratory compromise related to opiate overdose.
To explore the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours of fathers towards breastfeeding and how they impact either positively or negatively on their partners’ decisions to initiate or continue breastfeeding.
Despite policy initiatives at a national and international level and the increased number of baby-friendly hospitals within the UK, breastfeeding rates are slow to rise. Support from both parents has been proven to increase uptake and continuation rates, but there is little research into the emotional experience of fathers when it comes to breastfeeding.
We conducted qualitative interviews with 18 fathers in Wiltshire, England. Principles of grounded theory were used throughout this study to guide the sampling, data collection, and data analysis.
Fathers knew the health benefits of breastfeeding and wanted their child to breastfeed but were unsure of their place in the feeding process because they felt it was not their body. While they were aware of the benefits of breast milk for infants, fathers felt less informed of the practicalities of breastfeeding and the potential challenges they and their partner might have to overcome to breastfeed successfully for the recommended six-month period. Based on these findings, three segments were identified: the problem bonders, the dual bonders, and the pragmatists. All segments were concerned with the well-being of their partner and child and wanted their child to be breastfed. Health professionals can use the results of this study to create prenatal educational resources that take more of a preventive and problem-solving approach as opposed to promoting breastfeeding in efforts to comply with National Health Service guidelines, without offering solutions to common breastfeeding problems.
In an attempt to utilize large amounts of Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) that were captured using a mass trapping system, compost using Japanese beetle carcasses was prepared with the layer method. Carbon sources included shredded paper, wood chips and leaves, while the sole nitrogen source was frozen Japanese beetles. In addition, Japanese beetle-based vermicompost was prepared in the greenhouse by mixing the Japanese beetle-based compost with sphagnum peat moss and moist shredded paper and exposing this mixture to composting earthworms (Eisenia fetida). Chemical analyses of the Japanese beetle carcasses indicated that 10.8% of their body weight is nitrogen (N). Analyses of the resulting Japanese beetle-based compost and vermicompost indicated that both types of materials are good quality soil amendments. Greenhouse studies were conducted to quantify the effects of varying proportions of Japanese beetle-based vermicompost and compost mixed with a potting medium and varying dosages of synthetic fertilizer 20-0-0, on mean fresh and dry weight of lettuce shoots and leaf area. Japanese beetle-based compost and vermicompost increased lettuce biomass to an extent that was comparable with the addition of synthetic N-based fertilizer. A mixture of 15 and 30% of each compost type with potting media significantly increased plant weight and leaf area compared with potting medium alone. Results indicate that composting and vermicomposting insect carcasses are a simple, effective and affordable method to augment fertilization in support of organic production.
Growth of GaN on Si(111) and Ge coated Si(111) using pulsed electron beam deposition (PED) process is reported. GaN was deposited on Si(111) and Ge/Si(111) at 600°C in an N2 environment without any surface pre-treatment such as pre-nitridation. X-ray diffraction confirmed that c-plane oriented GaN was grown. Photoluminescence showed near-band-edge emission, the intensity of which was improved with hydrogen passivation. Electrical characterization showed n-type conductivity with room temperature electron mobilities in the range of 300 cm2/V-sec.
The formation of nickel germanide has been examined over a range of low temperatures (200-400 °C) in an attempt to minimize the thermal budget for the process. Cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used to determine the texture of the germanide layer and the morphology and constituent composition of the Ge/NiGe interface. The onset and completion of reaction between Ni and Ge were identified by means of a heated stage in combination with in-situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The stages of reaction were also monitored using measurements of sheet resistance of the germanides by the Van der Pauw technique. The results have shown that the minimum temperature for the initiation of reaction of Ni and Ge to form NiGe was 225 °C. However, an annealing temperature > 275 °C was necessary for the extensive (and practical) formation of NiGe. Between 200 and 300 °C, the duration of annealing required for the formation of NiGe was significantly longer than at higher temperatures. The stoichiometry of the germanide was very close to NiGe (1:1) as determined using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS).
Energy production presents numerous challenges to both industry and land managers across the globe. The recent development of unconventional (shale gas) plays around the world [US Energy Information Administration (USEIA), 2011] has brought attention to the potential for rapid change in affected landscapes and associated ecosystem services. While shale-gas development specifically has been the focus of recent research on how landscapes are changing (Drohan et al., 2012; Entrekin et al., 2011; Johnson, 2010), continued scientific investigation can lessen the resulting ecosystem disturbance across all energy infrastructure.
The Women in Materials (WIM) program, supported by the National Science Foundation, is a collaboration between Simmons College, a predominately undergraduate women’s college, and the Cornell Center for Materials Research (CCMR). For the past four years, this program has provided unusual curricular and research opportunities for undergraduate women at Simmons College. This program demonstrates a successful model for enhancing undergraduate science and technology preparation through collaboration between primarily undergraduate institutions (PUIs) and NSF-supported Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers.
Anodic dc polarization measurements of glassy Mg70 Zn30 in pH=9.3 boric-borate electrolyte with and without the presence of Cl− were used to study both passive film formation and breakdown. In the absence of C− a single, broad passivation peak is observed which is very similar to that found with triply distilled Mg except that the large increase in peak potential and reduction in peak current density indicates that a more stable film has formed on Mg70 Zn30. Also observed with Mg70 Zn30 but not with Mg, Zn or other different types of crystalline Mg alloys is a large, narrow peak in the transpassive region (i.e., the region where the passive film begins to break down and/or O2 evolution commences). This process of breakdown of the passive film and further oxidation of the base metal is totally irreversible and is almost completely missing on the second and subsequent voltage sweeps. Although speculative in nature, existing evidence suggests that a phase transition has occurred within the passive film itself. In the presence of Cl− this process does not occur as passive film breakdown is initiated via a pitting mechanism at a potential nearly 2.5 Volts more negative than the onset of O2 evolution. Nevertheless, the onset of pitting is still 0.4 Volts more positive than that found for Mg indicating again that a much more protective film has formed on Mg70 Zn30
Polycrystalline NiAl exhibits <001> slip at temperatures below about 450°C. In Fe-Al alloys there is a transition in the Burgers vector from a/2<111> at low temperatures to a<001> at intermediate temperatures. The transition temperature is dependent upon composition.
A transition in the Burgers vector from a/2<111> to a<001> has been found to exist as a function of composition and temperature in the B2 pseudo-binary (Fe,Ni)-40Al (at%) system. At room temperature, this transition occurs at a composition between Fe-40Al-10Ni, which exhibits <111> slip, and Fe-40Al-3ONi, which exhibits <001> slip. At 400°C this transition shifts further toward the iron-rich compositions. Fe-40Al-10Ni exhibits both <111> and <001> slip, whereas Fe-40Al-20Ni exhibits <001> slip.
The heterogeneous decomposition of 2-propanol vapor in the presence of CuO solid can be induced by irradiation with a pulsed CO2 laser. The reaction produces both propene and acetone. In contrast, the homogeneous multiphoton-induced decomposition of 2-propanol vapor yields only propene. The branching ratio ([hydrocarbon]/[acetone]) in the heterogeneous experiments has been examined as a function of laser pulse energy. While the yield of acetone increases monotonically with increasing fluence, yields of hydrocarbon show two distinctly different regimes of fluence dependence. Reactions have been run with both d8 and h8 2-propanol and on 1:1 mixtures. Neither reaction channel shows significant isotopic selectivity over a range of experimental conditions. This data will be discussed in light of a model that involves energy deposition in the solid, followed by either heterogeneous reaction of adsorbed material or energy transfer and subsequent multiphoton excitation of the alcohol vapor.