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The number of people living with dementia (PWD) is increasing worldwide, corresponding with an increasing number of caregivers for PWD. This study aims to identify and describe the literature surrounding the needs of caregivers of PWD and the solutions identified to meet these needs.
A literature search was performed in: PsycInfo, Medline, CINAHL, SCIELO and LILACS, January 2007–January 2018. Two independent reviewers evaluated 1,661 abstracts, and full-text screening was subsequently performed for 55 articles. The scoping review consisted of 31 studies, which were evaluated according to sociodemographic characteristics, methodological approach, and caregiver’s experiences, realities, and needs. To help extract and organize reported caregiver needs, we used the C.A.R.E. Tool as a guiding framework.
Thirty-one studies were identified. The most common needs were related to personal health (58% emotional health; 32% physical health) and receiving help from others (55%). Solutions from the articles reviewed primarily concerned information gaps (55%) and the education/learning needs of caregivers (52%).
This review identified the needs of caregivers of PWD. Caregivers’ personal health emerged as a key area of need, while provision of information was identified as a key area of support. Future studies should explore the changes that occur in needs over the caregiving trajectory and consider comparing caregivers’ needs across different countries.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly heterogeneous condition in terms of symptom presentation and, likely, underlying pathophysiology. Accordingly, it is possible that only certain individuals with MDD are well-suited to antidepressants. A potentially fruitful approach to parsing this heterogeneity is to focus on promising endophenotypes of depression, such as neuroticism, anhedonia, and cognitive control deficits.
Within an 8-week multisite trial of sertraline v. placebo for depressed adults (n = 216), we examined whether the combination of machine learning with a Personalized Advantage Index (PAI) can generate individualized treatment recommendations on the basis of endophenotype profiles coupled with clinical and demographic characteristics.
Five pre-treatment variables moderated treatment response. Higher depression severity and neuroticism, older age, less impairment in cognitive control, and being employed were each associated with better outcomes to sertraline than placebo. Across 1000 iterations of a 10-fold cross-validation, the PAI model predicted that 31% of the sample would exhibit a clinically meaningful advantage [post-treatment Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) difference ⩾3] with sertraline relative to placebo. Although there were no overall outcome differences between treatment groups (d = 0.15), those identified as optimally suited to sertraline at pre-treatment had better week 8 HRSD scores if randomized to sertraline (10.7) than placebo (14.7) (d = 0.58).
A subset of MDD patients optimally suited to sertraline can be identified on the basis of pre-treatment characteristics. This model must be tested prospectively before it can be used to inform treatment selection. However, findings demonstrate the potential to improve individual outcomes through algorithm-guided treatment recommendations.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a form of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for mood disorders. There are three categories of core strategies employed in DBT: change strategies, acceptance and validation strategies, and dialectical strategies. Change strategies in DBT, for the most part, are based on learning principles. One rationale for using DBT to treat mood disorders is the significant co-morbidity between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and mood disorders. Adapting DBT is different from adopting DBT. In the latter, DBT, e.g. the modes of treatment delivery, may be changed to meet the needs of the setting or target population. Programs which adopt comprehensive DBT benefit from the existing evidence base. DBT is an efficacious treatment proven to reduce suicidal behavior and nonsuicidal self-injury. DBT has been adapted for both bipolar adolescents and geriatric patients with treatment-resistant depression or depression co-morbid with BPD.
This Clinical Handbook for the Management of Mood Disorders will equip clinicians with the knowledge to refine their diagnostic skills and implement treatment plans for mood disorders based on the most up-to-date evidence on interventions that work. Covering the widest range of treatments and techniques, it provides clear guidance for the management of all types and subtypes of both minor and major depression. Chapters cover the latest and most innovative treatments, including use of ketamine, deep brain stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation, effective integration of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches, as well as providing a thought-provoking look at the future research agenda and the potential for reliable biomarkers. This is the most comprehensive review of depression available today. Written and edited by leading experts mostly from Columbia University, this is an essential resource for anyone involved in the care and treatment of patients with mood disorders.
Background: A self-verification model of social anxiety views negative social self-esteem as a core feature of social anxiety. This core feature is proposed to be maintained through self-verification processes, such as by leading individuals with negative social self-esteem to prefer negative social feedback. This model is tested in two studies. Methods: In Study 1, questionnaires were administered to a college sample (N = 317). In Study 2, questionnaires were administered to anxiety disordered patients (N = 62) before and after treatment. Results: Study 1 developed measures of preference for negative social feedback and social self-esteem, and provided evidence of their incremental validity in a college sample. Study 2 found that these two variables are not strongly related to fears of evaluation, are relatively unaffected by a treatment that targets such fears, and predict residual social anxiety following treatment. Conclusions: Overall, these studies provide preliminary evidence for a self-verification model of social anxiety.