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To evaluate the impact of multiannual, seasonal unconditional cash transfers (UCT) provided within the Moderate Acute Malnutrition Out (MAM’Out) research project on households’ food security and children’s and caregivers’ dietary diversity.
A two-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial with sixteen villages in the intervention group and sixteen others in the control group. A monthly allowance of 10 000 XOF was transferred to caregivers of eligible children via a personal mobile phone account from July to November 2013 and 2014.
Tapoa province in the eastern region of Burkina Faso.
Data on household food access (monthly adequate household food provisioning (MAHFP); household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS)) and maternal and child dietary diversity were analysed for 1143 households, 1219 caregivers of reproductive age (15–49 years) and 1247 under-5 children from both intervention and control groups.
The mean women dietary diversity score in intervention caregivers and the mean dietary diversity score (DDS) in intervention children with inadequate minimum DDS at baseline were respectively 7 % (95 % CI 2, 11 %; P = 0·002) and 17 % (95 % CI 11, 23 %; P <0·001) higher compared with the control group. However, no difference was found in the intervention effect on household food security measured with HFIAS (relative risk = 1·03; 95 % CI 0·92, 1·15; P = 0·565) and MAHFP (relative risk = 0·98; 95 % CI 0·96, 1·01; P = 0·426).
Multiannual, seasonalUCT increased dietary diversity in children and their caregivers. They can be recommended in actions aiming to improve maternal and child diet diversity.
To make pragmatic recommendations on best practices for the engagement of patients in emergency medicine (EM) research.
We created a panel of expert Canadian EM researchers, physicians, and a patient partner to develop our recommendations. We used mixed methods consisting of 1) a literature review; 2) a survey of Canadian EM researchers; 3) qualitative interviews with key informants; and 4) feedback during the 2017 Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) Academic Symposium.
We synthesized our literature review into categories including identification and engagement, patients’ roles, perceived benefits, harms, and barriers to patient engagement; 40/75 (53% response rate) invited researchers completed our survey. Among respondents, 58% had engaged patients in research, and 83% intended to engage patients in future research. However, 95% stated that they need further guidance to engage patients. Our qualitative interviews revealed barriers to patient engagement, including the need for training and patient partner recruitment.
Our panel recommends 1) an overarching positive recommendation to support patient engagement in EM research; 2) seven policy-level recommendations for CAEP to support the creation of a national patient council, to develop, adopt and adapt training material, guidelines, and tools for patient engagement, and to support increased patient engagement in EM research; and 3) nine pragmatic recommendations about engaging patients in the preparatory, execution, and translational phases of EM research.
Patient engagement can improve EM research by helping researchers select meaningful outcomes, increase social acceptability of studies, and design knowledge translation strategies that target patients’ needs.
A study of 67 E and S0 galaxies located mostly in the field and in groups reveals that at any given luminosity the UBV colors become systematically bluer as the amount of fine structure (ripples, jets of luminous matter, X-structure, and boxy isophotes) increases. Figure 1 shows the resulting correlations between the color residuals δ(U – B)e,0, δ(B – V)e,0 (calculated as deviations from the mean color–luminosity relations) and the fine structure parameter Σ. These correlations closely resemble correlations found earlier between CN, Mg2, and Hβ line strengths and the same parameter Σ in 36 ellipticals (Schweizer et al., Ap.J. Letters 364, L33, 1990). Both sets of correlations are most likely due to systematic variations in mean age, rather than mean metallicity, of the stellar populations in these early-type galaxies. We model the evolution of galaxies undergoing a major merger by convolving a single-burst model (Charlot & Bruzual, Ap.J. 367, 126, 1991) with a star formation rate that declines exponentially with a long time constant (6–10 Gyr) before the merger and with a short time constant (0.1–0.5 Gyr) afterwards. Some of the model parameters are determined from observations of two 1–2 Gyr old merger remnants. Comparisons between the observed UBV colors and the models suggest that the bluest E + S0 galaxies in our sample formed through mergers only a few billion years ago, which also explains their high amount of fine structure.
In astrometry, celestial radio sources with extended structures are useful. An algorithm to correct for structure in VLBI delays and delay rates is developed. The radio source NRAO140 is mapped from data with limited u-v coverage by the hybrid method and the Maximum Entropy procedure. The magnitude of the structure corrections in astrometry is discussed in the case of NRAO140.
Hybrid maps of 3C 273 and DA 193 at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz have been produced with VLBI data acquired during a Crustal Dynamics campaign. By comparing to maps at previous epochs, superluminal components of 3C 273 are clearly detected. DA 193 is relatively compact. Structure corrections for the VLBI delay used in astrometry have been estimated from these maps. Some corrections are significant when compared with the precision of models used in astrometry and geodesy.
We estimate a model with equilibrium unemployment explained by a search process on the labor market. We find that the matching function has increasing returns to scale and we show that this model may display fluctuations at business cycle frequencies even when there are no shocks to the fundamentals of the economy. In particular, self-fulfilling beliefs, or “animal spirits”, can explain the fluctuations around the Beveridge curve observed in the French, German and U.K. economies.
The deterioration of the cholinergic system in aging is hypothesized to contribute to age-related declines in attention. We investigated potential age differences in performance on the Attention Network Test (ANT) and intra-individual variability in speed (RT-IIV) on go/no-go and choice reaction time tasks in young and healthy older adults. We also asked whether short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI), a neurophysiological marker of central cholinergic activity obtained via transcranial magnetic stimulation, might be correlated with performance. Older adults were slower on the ANT and exhibited greater RT-IIV than young adults on the multiple choice RT task, but there were no age differences on the ANT network scores (alerting, orienting, and executive control). SAI was diminished in older adults, but it was not significantly correlated with performance. It may only be in cases of severe cholinergic dysfunction that relations with attention emerge. Other brain mechanisms may also be stronger predictors of functions relating to attention.
The first term in the Drake Equation is R*, the number of newly formed stars in the galaxy per year. The estimate given in 1961 was ten stars per year. Over the past fifty years, new instruments and methods have allowed us to better understand how stars begin their lives and how efficiently gas can create new ones.
Powerful instruments specifically adapted to the study of star formation include both space facilities – the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), the Herschel Space Observatory (HSO), and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) – and a host of ground-based optical, infrared, submillimeter, and radio telescopes. These instruments have described in unprecedented detail the key phases and physical processes that lead to the formation of individual stars.
In-depth case studies of individual star-forming regions have yielded an understanding of the central physical processes that determine how molecular clouds contract and fragment into clumps and cores and, finally, clusters and individual stars. The determination of the global star formation rate (SFR) for the Milky Way is rigorously based on measurements of the global parameters of several local star-forming regions. In general, any total flux measure that is related to the SFR of a galaxy (including the Milky Way) is completely dominated by high-mass stars, since these are responsible for virtually all of the luminosity of a galaxy.
The detailed picture of how gas is transformed into stars requires not only knowledge of the SFR but also the distribution of mass of stars at their birth, a function called initial mass function (IMF). Theoretical simulations have explored how large molecular clouds fragment into stars under very different physical conditions. These works have permitted us to identify the most important physical parameters and have led to analytical formulations of the SFR and the IMF. 39In particular, they give estimates of a factor that is particularly important for the Drake Equation: the fraction of stars that are binary.
Most estimates of the SFR of the Milky Way have relied on global observables. Such studies generally rely on indirect tracers of massive (O- and early-B-type) stars to determine a massive SFR. This value is then extrapolated to lower masses to derive a global SFR for our galaxy. For example, an analysis from the late 1970s led to a value of five solar masses per year by making use of the fact that the integrated flux density from an HII region is a direct measure of the number of ionizing photons required to maintain that HII region, and is therefore an indirect measure of the number of O- and early B-type stars. In 2006, an estimate of four solar masses per year was derived from observations using the European Space Agency's International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) mission, which measured the gamma rays emitted by radioactive aluminum as a proxy for the massive star population of the Milky Way. Another study from 2006 gave a value of 2.7 solar masses per year, by using the total 100-micron flux of our galaxy. Along the line of these examples, this chapter will review in detail the evolution of estimates of R*, which is now closer to five solar masses per year than the ten assumed in 1961.
Background: A large hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 has been identified as the most common genetic cause in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) is a sleep disorder that has been strongly linked to synuclein-mediated neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the C9orf72 expansions in the pathogenesis of RBD. Methods: We amplified the C9orf72 repeat expansion in 344 patients with RBD by a repeat-primed polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: We identified two RBD patients carrying the C9orf72 repeat expansion. Most interestingly, these patients have the same C9orf72 associated-risk haplotype identified in 9p21-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia families. Conclusions: Our study enlarges the phenotypic spectrum associated with the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions and suggests that, although rare, this expansion may play a role in the pathogenesis of RBD.
A participatory plant breeding (PPB) program involving the French farmers' association ‘Réseau Semences Paysannes’ and the French National Agricultural Research Institute (INRA) at Le Moulon was initiated in 2005. In the process of designing the breeding scheme, we evaluated the impact of farmer selection at an early stage (F2) on bread wheat cross progeny populations. The objectives were to characterize the effect of farmer selection, to evaluate the impact of farmer selection on intra-varietal diversity, to provide farmers with relevant information that they can use to improve their selection practices. Early selection was found efficient for some traits and for some of the 35 F2-derived F3 families. For traits of interest such as thousand kernel weight or grain weight per spike, when the response was significant, it was always positive. For most of the traits studied, the among-family genetic variance increased after selection while the average within-family genetic variance decreased. This study provides the first quantitative results for this PPB program and information that will help optimize it in the future.