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Southern crabgrass [Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler] is an annual grass weed that commonly infests turfgrass, roadsides, wastelands, and cropping systems throughout the southeastern United States. Two biotypes of D. ciliaris (R1 and R2) with known resistance to cyclohexanediones (DIMs) and aryloxyphenoxypropionates (FOPs) previously collected from sod production fields in Georgia were compared with a separate susceptible biotype (S) collected from Alabama for the responses to pinoxaden and to explore the possible mechanisms of resistance. Increasing rates of pinoxaden (0.1 to 23.5 kg ha−1) were evaluated for control of R1, R2, and S. The resistant biotypes, R1 and R2, were resistant to pinoxaden relative to S. The S biotype was completely controlled at rates of 11.8 and 23.5 kg ha−1, resulting in no aboveground biomass at 14 d after treatment. Pinoxaden rates at which tiller length and aboveground biomass would be reduced 50% (I50) and 90% (I90) for R1, R2, and S ranged from 7.2 to 13.2 kg ha−1, 6.9 to 8.6 kg ha−1, and 0.7 to 2.1 kg ha−1, respectively, for tiller length, and 7.7 to 10.2 kg ha−1, 7.2 to 7.9 kg ha−1, and 1.6 to 2.3 kg ha−1, respectively, for aboveground biomass. Prior selection pressure from DIM and FOP herbicides could result in the evolution of D. ciliaris cross-resistance to pinoxaden herbicides. Amplification of the carboxyl-transferase domain of the plastidic ACCase by standard PCR identified a point mutation resulting in an Ile-1781-Leu amino acid substitution only for the resistant biotype, R1. Further cloning of PCR product surrounding the 1781 region yielded two distinct ACCase gene sequences, Ile-1781 and Leu-1781. The amino acid substitution, Ile-1781-Leu in both resistant biotypes (R1 and R2), however, was revealed by next-generation sequencing of RNA using Illumina platform. A point mutation in the Ile-1781 codon leading to herbicide insensitivity in the ACCase enzyme has been previously reported in other grass species. Our research confirms that the Ile-1781-Leu substitution is present in pinoxaden-resistant D. ciliaris.
Waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J. D. Sauer] and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) are troublesome weeds of row-crop production in the United States. Their dioecious reproductive systems ensure outcrossing, facilitating rapid evolution and distribution of resistances to multiple herbicides. Little is known, however, about the genetic basis of dioecy in Amaranthus species. In this work, we use restriction site–associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) to investigate the genetic basis of sex determination in A. tuberculatus and A. palmeri. For each species, approximately 200 plants of each sex were sampled and used to create RAD-Seq libraries. The resulting libraries were separately bar-coded and then pooled for sequencing with the Illumina platform, yielding millions of 64-bp reads. These reads were analyzed to identify sex-specific and sex-biased sequences. We identified 345 male-specific sequences from the A. palmeri data set and 2,754 male-specific sequences in A. tuberculatus. An unexpected 723 female-specific sequences were identified in a subset of the A. tuberculatus females; subsequent research, however, indicated female specificity of these markers was limited to the population from which they were identified. Primer sets designed to specifically amplify male-specific sequences were tested for accuracy on multiple, geographically distinct populations of A. tuberculatus and A. palmeri, as well as other Amaranthus species. Two primer sets for A. palmeri and four primer sets for A. tuberculatus were each able to distinguish between male and female plants with at least 95% accuracy. In the near term, sex-specific markers will be useful to the A. tuberculatus and A. palmeri research communities (e.g., to predict sex for crossing experiments). In the long-term, this research will provide the foundational tools for detailed investigations into the molecular biology and evolution of dioecy in weedy Amaranthus species.
Mass gatherings are growing in frequency. Religious, or in this case, “mass” mass gatherings are also growing in complexity, requiring considerable effort from nations hosting a Papal Mass. Ireland hosted a papal mass in 1979 when the prospect of terrorism at such events was significantly lower. Large high-profile events such as a Papal Mass offer a platform via the media and social media to gain widespread coverage of adverse events. In 2018, a predicted 500,000 guests were scheduled to attend a Papal Mass gathering in Phoenix Park, Dublin, a bounded 1,700-hectare park in the center of Dublin.
To develop a medical plan estimating numbers of people requiring medical attention at a Papal Mass held in Ireland late August 2018, and compare same with actual numbers treated post-event. This study aims to reduce the medical impact of such an event on local receiving hospitals through plans that effectively manage medical- and trauma-related presentations on site.
A literature review of medical reports regarding medical care at Papal Mass gatherings worldwide found a range of predicted medical attendance from 21-61 per 10,000 attendees. On that basis we had prepared on-site facilities, facilities on travel routes and access point system for medical care for a crowd of 500,000 were selected.
One of 6 receiving hospitals in Dublin had an increase in average presentations on the day. Attendance was reduced significantly due to weather. 261 patients were treated on site, falling in line with lower rate predicted of 31 patients treated in hospital on site and 17 transports off-site.
A predictable number of patients presented for medical care. On-site medical services reduced transports to hospital. Reduced attendance ensured facilities were sufficient, but could have been under the pressure of the predicted attendance of 500,000.
The emergence of and reaction to policy scandals has been usefully studied through comparative case studies. Far less attention has been devoted, however, to the study of such scandals in long-term historical context. With the aim of illuminating longer-term social processes which shape the likelihood that (health)care scandals emerge, we delineate three areas where such changes are visible: a) changing formats of social relations and emotions within and around care provision, and thereby understandings of and demands for compassionate care; b) heightened organisational and political sensitivity to failings; and c) changes in media reporting on healthcare failings, as well as in policy-makers’ responsiveness to and manipulation of media. We consider the 2013 Mid Staffordshire scandal in the English National Health Service and the extant policy literature on this scandal to help illuminate the added analytical value of our long-term approach. In the final section we explore the interconnection of the three processes and how longer-term approaches open up new vistas for policy analysis.
Patient expectancy is an important source of placebo effects in antidepressant clinical trials, but all prior studies measured expectancy prior to the initiation of medication treatment. Little is known about how expectancy changes during the course of treatment and how such changes influence clinical outcome. Consequently, we undertook the first analysis to date of in-treatment expectancy during antidepressant treatment to identify its clinical and demographic correlates, typical trajectories, and associations with treatment outcome.
Data were combined from two randomized controlled trials of antidepressant medication for major depressive disorder in which baseline and in-treatment expectancy assessments were available. Machine learning methods were used to identify pre-treatment clinical and demographic predictors of expectancy. Multilevel models were implemented to test the effects of expectancy on subsequent treatment outcome, disentangling within- and between-patient effects.
Random forest analyses demonstrated that whereas more severe depressive symptoms predicted lower pre-treatment expectancy, in-treatment expectancy was unrelated to symptom severity. At each measurement point, increased in-treatment patient expectancy significantly predicted decreased depressive symptoms at the following measurement (B = −0.45, t = −3.04, p = 0.003). The greater the gap between expected treatment outcomes and actual depressive severity, the greater the subsequent symptom reductions were (B = 0.49, t = 2.33, p = 0.02).
Greater in-treatment patient expectancy is associated with greater subsequent depressive symptom reduction. These findings suggest that clinicians may benefit from monitoring and optimizing patient expectancy during antidepressant treatment. Expectancy may represent another treatment parameter, similar to medication compliance and side effects, to be regularly monitored during antidepressant clinical management.
Recent modelling estimates up to two-thirds of new HIV infections among men who have sex with men occur within partnerships, indicating the importance of dyadic HIV prevention efforts. Although new interventions are available to promote dyadic health-enhancing behaviours, minimal research has examined what factors influence partners’ mutual engagement in these behaviours, a critical component of intervention success. Actor-partner interdependence modelling was used to examine associations between relationship characteristics and several dyadic outcomes theorised as antecedents to health-enhancing behaviours: planning and decision making, communication, and joint effort. Among 270 male-male partnerships, relationship satisfaction was significantly associated with all three outcomes for actors (p = .02, .02, .06 respectively). Latino men reported poorer planning and decision making (actor p = .032) and communication (partner p = .044). Alcohol use was significantly and negatively associated with all outcomes except actors’ planning and decision making (actors: p = .11, .038, .004 respectively; partners: p = .03, .056, .02 respectively). Having a sexual agreement was significantly associated with actors’ planning and decision making (p = .007) and communication (p = .008). Focusing on interactions between partners produces a more comprehensive understanding of male couples’ ability to engage in health-enhancing behaviours. This knowledge further identifies new and important foci for the tailoring of dyadic HIV prevention and care interventions.
Radiocarbon dating using charcoal and bone collagen, two standards of archaeological chronology, can be difficult to impossible in environments where natural burning is common and bone does not preserve well. In such settings, charcoal ages cannot always be trusted and collagen is unavailable. Calcined bone can be a viable alternative medium in these situations but it has rarely been exploited in the Americas. One area that could benefit from its use is the forested Pacific Northwest. We compare calcined bone ages with charcoal and/or collagen dates from individual features or discrete cultural strata in 10 Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and British Columbia sites dating between 9000 and 100 B.P. Resulting radiocarbon age estimates based on calcined bone closely match those based on charcoal and/or collagen in nearly all cases. We obtained calcined bone dates from three additional Holocene-aged sites that had not previously produced accurate results, obtaining findings consistent with estimates based on cross dating. Preserving well where all other organic media of cultural origin are lost or unreliable, calcined bone holds promise for dating sites in conifer forests and other acidic soil settings, and can allow researchers to refine archaeological sequences that have long defied accurate chronometric analysis.
Chemical evolution of r-process elements in the Milky Way disc is still a matter of debate. We took advantage of high resolution HARPS spectra from the ESO archive in order to derive precise chemical abundances of 3 r-process elements Eu, Dy & Gd for a sample of 4 355 FGK Milky Way stars. The chemical analysis has been performed thanks to the automatic optimization pipeline GAUGUIN. Based on the [α/Fe] ratio, we chemically characterized the thin and the thick discs, and present here results of these 3 r-process element abundances in both discs. We found an unexpected Gadolinium and Dysprosium enrichment in the thick disc stars compared to Europium, while these three elements track well each other in the thin disc.
In this note, we give a new simple construction of all maximal abelian ideals in a Borel subalgebra of a complex simple Lie algebra. We also derive formulas for dimensions of certain maximal abelian ideals in terms of the theory of Borel de Siebenthal.
Excavations in Duxford, Cambridgeshire, in 2013, revealed six early Roman (a.d. 50–80) pottery kilns. The kilns were used for the production of flagons, specifically collared and ring-necked varieties. Flagons are generally scarce in contemporary domestic assemblages in Cambridgeshire, often only occurring in ‘special’ contexts, such as burials, while collared flagons are closely associated with military consumption. The excavations also produced a large, significant assemblage of perforated kiln plates. The technology and repertoire of vessels suggest that manufacture was conducted by non-local potters for a specialist market. The site forms part of a group of other early Roman kiln sites in the Cambridge environs and adds to the growing picture of pottery production in the decades following the Roman Conquest.
Now in its second edition, Managing Employee Performance and Reward continues to offer comprehensive coverage of employee performance and reward, presenting the material in a conceptually integrated way. This new edition has been substantially updated and revised by a team of specialist contributors, and includes: An increased focus on employee engagement and the alignment between the organisation's goals and the personal goals of employeesExpanded coverage of coaching, now a leading-edge performance enhancement practiceExtensive updates reflecting the major changes in employee benefits in recent years, as organisations strive to attract and retain talentUpdated coverage of executive salaries and incentives in the contemporary post-GFC environment.This popular text is an indispensable resource for both students and managers alike. Written for a global readership, the book will continue to have particular appeal to those studying and practising people management in the Asia-Pacific region.
It is appropriate that we begin our journey by considering those ideas, concepts, propositions and debates that are fundamental to a rounded understanding of employee performance and reward management and, equally, to well-informed and effective practice in these fields.
The three chapters in part 1 are devoted to this end. Chapter 1 seeks to clarify the meaning, nature and purpose of our two focal human resource processes: performance management and reward management. While our treatment of the ‘what’ and ‘why’ of performance and reward management is written from an explicitly prescriptive-descriptive perspective, the treatment is neither wholly management-centred nor uncritical.
Building on this foundational knowledge, the two accompanying chapters consider, respectively, the psychological, motivational and strategic basics of performance and reward management. These chapters offer frameworks for practising performance and reward management in both a psychologically aware and a strategically informed manner. The development, implementation and maintenance of effective performance and reward management systems require simultaneous attention to each of these fundamental dimensions.
By ‘psychological’ dimensions we mean the attitudes, perceptions, values and emotional (or ‘affective’) states that prefi gure the observable actions-or behaviour-of individual employees, or at least that seem to predispose individuals towards certain behavioural actions rather than others. While ‘motivation’ is undoubtedly the most widely acknowledged and theorised of all work attitudes, as we shall see, there are others that may be no less salient or infl uential, including those that are grounded more in perception and in deeply held values and emotions than in dispassionate or rational cognition.
The three chapters in part 2 examine the key concepts, techniques and processes associated with the management of employee performance. In chapter 1 we observed that, from a descriptive ‘cybernetic’ (i.e. systems) perspective, work performance may be thought of as having three horizontal or process dimensions – that is, inputs (knowledge, skills and abilities), task effort and other types of work behaviour, and outcomes or results; and three vertical or scalar dimensions – that is, individual, group and organisation-wide performance. By definition, the methods that accentuate behaviour and competency have an individual focus.
Chapters 4 and 5 examine the main performance management methods or techniques associated with each of these dimensions. Chapter 4 considers those approaches to performance management that are results-focused. Chapter 5 will then consider the methods and techniques that are behaviourally focused and examine the concepts and techniques that emphasise performance inputs or capacities in the form of performance competencies. Chapter 6 , the fi nal chapter in part 2 , examines both the provision of performance feedback to individual employees and practices directed towards performance development, including coaching.
Having now laid out all of the pieces of the performance and reward puzzle, it is time for us to consider how to go about assembling these elements into a coherent whole. In this concluding chapter, we detail the alignment model approach to assembling the various concepts, practices and strategies explored in parts 1–4 into an integrated and strategically aligned whole. Specifically, we examine the requirements for and challenges associated with performance and reward system review and the steps involved in system change and development. Although our approach here is primarily prescriptive in nature, our prescriptions also draw on a range of insights available in the empirical or descriptive and critical literatures that have been referred to at various points throughout the text.
Having considered the key psychological and strategic dimensions to understanding the employment relationship, as well as the three main approaches to managing employee performance, we can now turn our attention to the second of the two human resource management processes with which this book is concerned, namely, the management of employee reward and, in particular, the management of employee pay or remuneration. A remuneration system typically comprises three main elements: base pay, benefits and performance-related pay. In designing any remuneration system careful attention should be paid to three key considerations: first, the relative role that each of these three components will play in total remuneration; second, the practices that will be drawn on to configure each component; and third, the target level of total remuneration for each position.
The four chapters in part 3 cover base pay and benefi ts. Chapter 7 considers the rationale for base pay, the main options for confi guring base pay, the general strengths and weaknesses of each approach, and the incidence of each. It then details the pay structures associated with each option, while chapters 8 and 9 discuss the evaluation methods and processes associated with the development of pay systems based on each of these approaches. Chapter 10 then examines the logic of employee benefit plans and the main options for confi guring such plans.