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There are significant challenges to retaining indigenous biodiversity and ecological infrastructure in African cities. These include a lack of formal protection and status for remnant ecologically functional patches rendering them open to ad hoc human settlement, which is in part linked to weak governance and management emerging from complex histories, and competing crisis-ridden demands. Persistent gaps in knowledge and practice mean that the social, economic, development and well-being benefits of ecological infrastructure are not understood or demonstrated. Addressing these challenges requires the adoption of multiple top-down government interventions and bottom-up community and neighbourhood actions. The development of detailed case studies that engage with knowledge generation and sharing at multiple scales through co-learning practices will also help create a much-needed deeper understanding of development options within this context.
During the Indian Emergency (1975–77) a range of opposition groups and the Indian state competed to mobilize the Indian diaspora. The Emergency therefore needs to be understood as a global event. Opposition activists travelled overseas and developed transnational networks to protest against the Emergency, by holding demonstrations in their countries of residence and smuggling pamphlets into India. They tried to influence the media and politicians outside India in an effort to pressurize Indira Gandhi into ending the Emergency. An important strand of ‘long-distance’ anti-Emergency activism involved individuals from the Hindu nationalist movement overseas, whose Indian counterparts were proscribed and imprisoned during the period. Several key Hindutva politicians in recent decades were also involved in transnational anti-Emergency activism, including Subramanian Swamy and Narendra Modi. The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh's role in opposing the Emergency—particularly the way in which it enabled overseas Indians to act as ‘smugglers of truth’—remains an important legitimizing narrative for Hindu nationalists. Indira Gandhi's Congress government mounted its own pro-Emergency campaigns overseas: it attacked diasporic opposition activists and closely monitored their activities through diplomatic missions. The state's recognition of the diaspora's potential influence on Indian politics, and its attempts to counter this activism, catalysed a long-term change in its attitude towards Indians overseas. It aimed to imitate more ‘successful’ diasporas and began to regard overseas Indians as a vital political and geopolitical resource. The Emergency must be reassessed as a critical event in the creation of new forms of transnational citizenship, global networks, and long-distance nationalism.
The right of indigenous peoples to give or withhold their free, prior and informed consent (FPIC) to developments that will affect them is articulated in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, which was passed with a resounding majority by the UN General Assembly in September 2007. Voluntary industry standards for timber (set up by the Forest Stewardship Council) and oil palm (through the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil) recognise the necessity for both indigenous peoples and local communities to enjoy the right to give or withhold their free, prior and informed consent. Following pressure from customers and investors, many of the biggest companies in these sectors in Indonesia have committed to follow these standards, even as Indonesia's Ministry of Foreign Affairs continues to insist that the nation does not have any indigenous peoples, and that the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples therefore does not apply to Indonesia. The voluntary industry commitments to respect community rights, combined with advocacy by civil society, have put pressure on the Indonesian government to provide greater recognition of the rights of local communities and indigenous peoples.
Companies that sign up to the voluntary industry standards are obliged to respect customary (adat) land rights and the right to FPIC, and to attempt to resolve any outstanding conflicts that impinge on those rights. Both companies and non-government organisations have lobbied the Indonesian government to make uniform environmental and social commitments mandatory for all concession holders. There are indications that national regulations on important issues such as the identification and protection of environmentally significant areas, the right to FPIC and access to conflict resolution mechanisms are being strengthened due to these advocacy efforts (Dewan Kehutanan Nasional and UN-REDD Programme Indonesia 2011). In 2015, for example, both the Ministry of Agrarian Affairs and Spatial Planning and the Ministry of Environment and Forestry issued regulations that provide much greater scope for communities affected by plantations to have their rights to land recognised.
For both companies and governments seeking to acquire land, the process of obtaining consent from community landholders is a central issue (Colchester et al. 2006; Afrizal 2007, 2010, 2013; Colchester and Chao 2013). The question of consent concerns recognition of and respect for a community's rights to land, and is particularly important given the rapid expansion of pulp and paper and oil palm plantations across Indonesia.
Excavations in Duxford, Cambridgeshire, in 2013, revealed six early Roman (a.d. 50–80) pottery kilns. The kilns were used for the production of flagons, specifically collared and ring-necked varieties. Flagons are generally scarce in contemporary domestic assemblages in Cambridgeshire, often only occurring in ‘special’ contexts, such as burials, while collared flagons are closely associated with military consumption. The excavations also produced a large, significant assemblage of perforated kiln plates. The technology and repertoire of vessels suggest that manufacture was conducted by non-local potters for a specialist market. The site forms part of a group of other early Roman kiln sites in the Cambridge environs and adds to the growing picture of pottery production in the decades following the Roman Conquest.
Under the Yudhoyono presidency, the environment featured in Indonesia's national and international politics with a prominence it had never previously achieved. It was not just the slew of new policies and initiatives; President Yudhoyono himself seemed to take the issue more seriously than any previous Indonesian president. This was most dramatically demonstrated at the G20 conference in Pittsburgh in 2009 when he announced to the world that, by itself, Indonesia would reduce its carbon emissions below business-as-usual projections by 26 per cent by 2020, and by 41 per cent if the country received international support. With some 80 per cent of Indonesia's emissions the result of forestry and land-use change, in 2010 Yudhoyono issued a two-year moratorium on the issuing of new permits to develop primary forests and peatlands, a proscription that covered 74 million hectares of forest land and that was subsequently extended until 2015. At a conference in 2011 he promised to ‘dedicate the last three years of my term as President to deliver enduring results that will sustain and enhance the environment and forests of Indonesia’ (Lang 2011). In 2013 he established a national agency for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. For these and other reasons, Yudhoyono has sometimes been lauded at home and abroad for his environmental commitments and achievements. Upon stepping down as Indonesian president, he goes on to become the chair and president of the Global Green Growth Institute, an international organisation with a mission to promote environmentally sustainable economic development.
This chapter assesses Yudhoyono's environmental record by considering two major initiatives that took place during his time in office: the passage and implementation of a new environmental law, and the introduction of plans for climate change mitigation. The new Environment Law, the aim of which was to provide environmental protection and management for the benefit of all citizens, resulted from the efforts of a broad coalition in parliament, including Yudhoyono's party, and created big opportunities to improve environmental management. Addressing climate change was very much Yudhoyono's own issue, which he promoted at home and especially abroad. The president and his government were able to bring in new environmental and climate policies and link them to public participation and anti-corruption efforts.
The oil palm sector is the largest agricultural export earner for Indonesia, with exports worth 15 billion dollars in 2010. Government and industry are planning to more than triple the area of oil palm plantations in the coming decade from the current 7 million hectares to more than 25 million hectares. While bringing income and jobs to rural poor, the industry has taken over the lands of millions of small farmers and damaged the forests and traditional livelihoods of thousands of indigenous communities.
The Indonesian Constitution recognizes the rights of indigenous communities to their customary lands, livelihoods, and systems of law and government, but in practice these rights have been routinely ignored and violated by government and industry. The right of indigenous peoples to control developments on their customary lands was confirmed in 2007 by the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, and today governments and businesses around the world are being challenged to fulfil this commitment. International voluntary standards for forestry, oil palm, and for reducing emissions from deforestation require developers to respect the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities to give or withhold their free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC) to developments that may affect their customary lands.
The Indonesian Government and the national association of oil palm companies are resisting demands that they respect the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities when they develop new plantation areas. Human rights groups in Indonesia and abroad are forming alliances with small farmers to encourage progressive producer and consumer companies to respect the rights of indigenous and local communities to FPIC.
Many of the largest oil palm plantation companies operating in Indonesia have joined the voluntary industry standard, the Round Table on Sustainable Palm Oil, and are now obliged to respect indigenous peoples' customary land rights. Some of these plantation companies have begun to change the way they acquire plantation land accordingly. If fully implemented, these commitments should reduce forest loss and bring positive benefits to millions of small farmers who are members of indigenous peoples and local communities in Indonesia.
The use of killed cover crop mulch for weed suppression, soil erosion prevention and many other soil and crop benefits has been demonstrated in organic no-till or zero-till farming systems in eastern US regions and in Canada. Implements have been developed to make this system possible by terminating cover crops mechanically with little, if any, soil disturbance. Ongoing research in the US northern Great Plains is being conducted to identify cover crop species and termination methods for use in organic zero-till (OZ) systems that are adapted to the crop rotations and climate of this semi-arid region. Current termination strategies must be improved so that cover crop species are killed consistently and early enough in the growing season so that subsequent cash crops can be grown and harvested successfully. Delaying termination until advanced growth stages improves killing efficacy of cover crops and may provide weed-suppressive mulch for the remainder of the growing season, allowing no-till spring seeding of cash crops during the next growing season. Excessive water use by cover crops, inability of legume cover crops to supply adequate amounts of N for subsequent cash crops and failure of cover crops to suppress perennial weeds are additional obstacles that must be overcome before the use of killed cover crop mulch can be promoted as a weed control alternative to tillage in the US northern Great Plains. Use of vegetative mulch produced by killed cover crops will not be a panacea for the weed control challenges faced by organic growers, but rather one tool along with crop rotation, novel grazing strategies, the judicious use of high-residue cultivation equipment, such as the blade plow, and the use of approved herbicides with systemic activity in some instances, to provide organic farmers with new opportunities to incorporate OZ practices into their cropping systems. Emerging crop rotation designs for organic no-till systems may provide for more efficient use of nutrient and water resources, opportunities for livestock grazing before, during or after cash crop phases and improved integrated weed management strategies on organic farms.
Persistence of the soil seed bank requires both dormancy and resistance to seed decay organisms. However, there is little or no information evaluating biochemical responses of dormant weed seeds to pathogens. Wild oat caryopses were incubated with four pathogenic fungal isolates to evaluate the response of the pathogen defense enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Caryopsis PPO activity was induced by three Fusarium spp. isolates previously obtained from whole seeds incubated in the field whereas caryopsis PPO activity was decreased by a Pythium isolate. Fusarium avenaceum isolate F.a.1 caused the greatest PPO induction and was studied in more detail. When whole wild oat seeds were incubated on F.a.1, PPO activity was induced in seeds, hulls (lemma and palea), and caryopses. Incubation of whole seeds on F.a.1 gradually induced caryopsis PPO activity over an 8-d period, whereas incubation of caryopses on F.a.1 over a 4-d period caused a greater and more rapid induction of PPO activity. Very little PPO activity could be leached from untreated caryopses, but nearly all of the induced PPO activity in F.a.1-treated caryopses was readily leached when incubated in buffer. In Western blots, both untreated and F.a.1-treated leachates contained a ∼57-kilodalton (kD) protein, putatively the mature and relatively inactive form of PPO. However, lower molecular weight antigenic proteins between ∼52 and ∼25 kD were strongly induced in F.a.1-treated caryopses, with this induction being correlated with the increase in PPO activity. We hypothesize that dormant weed seeds possess biochemical defenses against pathogens and, more specifically, that proteolysis in the presence of fungal pathogens may release an activated form of PPO from the surface of wild oat caryopses and hulls.
This paper reports on the refinement of a mechanical model for the
load-deflection of multilayer membranes under uniform differential pressure
and on its application to the experimental extraction of material
parameters. Going beyond previous results, the analytical model takes into
account the mechanics of multilayers and elastic supports covering all cases
between rigidly clamped to simply supported structures and enables the
straightforward assessment of stress profiles within the deformed
structures. A comprehensive set of long membranes made of various
multilayers of silicon nitride and oxide films are fabricated and
characterized. The out-of-plane deflection profile under pressure load is
monitored by means of a laser profilometer. The pressure is stepped up until
fracture occurs. From the stress profiles in the membrane at fracture, the
brittle material strength is analyzed using Weibull statistics. The bulge
setup has been fully automated for the measurement of 80 membranes per
wafer. This realizes, for the first time, the high throughput-acquisition of
mechanical thin film data with convincing statistical control.
The reduction of mobile ions--mainly Na+, but also K+, H+ and Li+, is very critical as our gate oxide thickness and Leff decreases. Hot electron induced hydrogen compensation of boron doped silicon changes the PMOS Leff and NPN BVebo. This paper shows how to reduce Na+ by 100X, through the use of Triangular Voltage Sweep (TVS). This paper is designed to give scientists and engineers a case history where we reduced these levels from 1012 to 1010 mobile ions/cm2 in our 0.8μm BiCMOS process. This was accomplished by adding Ammonium Fluoride mixture dips at appropriate steps. For fast feedback, we can non-destructively measure Na, K, and H within 10 minutes of completing phororesist removal at any of the metallization steps using TVS. In addition to BiCMOS, TVS measure is a power tool in Nonvolatile Memories for predicting in-line data retention, when data retention is associated with charge gain.
Previous work showed that misfit dislocations were blocked at trench walls in a unique way in InGaAs strained layers grown on GaAs that was patterned and etched to form a series of mesas separated by trenches. A model is developed to explain the behavior of misfit dislocations in this material. The energy cost of extending the threading dislocation segment, which accompanies a misfit dislocation during glide, can impede the motion of these defects if the trench walls are steep enough.
Manipulation of bio-fluids in microchannels faces many challenges in the development of lab-on-a-chip devices. We propose magnetically actuated artificial cilia which can propel fluids in microchannels. These cilia are magnetic films which can be actuated by an external magnetic field, leading to an asymmetric motion like that of natural cilia. The coupling between different physical mechanisms (magnetostatics, solid mechanics and fluid dynamics) is numerically established. In this work we quantify the flow through a microfluidic channel as a function of its geometry for a characteristic set of dimensionless parameters.
The genetic basis of weedy and invasive traits and their evolution remain poorly understood, but genomic approaches offer tremendous promise for elucidating these important features of weed biology. However, the genomic tools and resources available for weed research are currently meager compared with those available for many crops. Because genomic methodologies are becoming increasingly accessible and less expensive, the time is ripe for weed scientists to incorporate these methods into their research programs. One example is next-generation sequencing technology, which has the advantage of enhancing the sequencing output from the transcriptome of a weedy plant at a reduced cost. Successful implementation of these approaches will require collaborative efforts that focus resources on common goals and bring together expertise in weed science, molecular biology, plant physiology, and bioinformatics. We outline how these large-scale genomic programs can aid both our understanding of the biology of weedy and invasive plants and our success at managing these species in agriculture. The judicious selection of species for developing weed genomics programs is needed, and we offer up choices, but no Arabidopsis-like model species exists in the world of weeds. We outline the roadmap for creating a powerful synergy of weed science and genomics, given well-placed effort and resources.