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While American political development scholars tend to focus on national or state-level politics, late nineteenth-century cities provided the lion's share of services: clean water, paved and lighted streets, and sanitation. How did cities innovate and build municipal capacity to do these things? We answer this question by looking at municipal responses to the garbage problem. As cities grew and trash piled up in the 1890s, cities explored ways to effectively collect the garbage. A government requires not just resources, but also the ability to marshal those resources. Corruption could provide such abilities. Looking at four corrupt cities—Pittsburgh, Charleston, New Orleans, and St. Louis—we consider whether corruption, and what type of corruption, fostered innovation and capacity. We compare these corrupt cities with a shadow study of the reformist government of Columbus. We found the following: (1) The logic of corruption is the most important factor to explain why municipal governments chose particular garbage strategies. Corrupt regimes chose garbage collection and disposal strategies that would benefit themselves—but these varied depending on what type of corruption dominated a city. (2) Corruption sometimes promoted innovation and capacity, but at other times, corruption hindered them. For better or worse, cities ruled by corruption gained the capacity that these informal regimes held.
The purpose of this study is to assess the discourse of people with disabilities regarding their perception of discrimination and stigma. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten adults with physical disabilities, ten with hearing impairments and seven with visual impairments. The agreement between the coders showed an excellent reliability for all three groups, with kappa coefficients between .82 and .96. Differences were assessed between the three groups regarding the types of discrimination they experienced and their most frequent emotional responses. People with physical disabilities mainly reported being stared at, undervalued, and subtly discriminated at work, whereas people with hearing impairments mainly reported encountering barriers in leisure activities, and people with visual impairments spoke of a lack of equal opportunities, mockery and/or bullying, and overprotection. Regarding their emotional reactions, people with physical disabilities mainly reported feeling anxious and depressed, whereas people with hearing impairments reported feeling helpless, and people with visual impairments reported feeling anger and self-pity. Findings are relevant to guide future research and interventions on the stigma of disability.
To compare the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and mortality of patients with bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) versus ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) and to examine the differences in clinical characteristics and outcome between BSIs caused by isolates with CTX-M versus other ESBL genotypes
As part of the INCREMENT project, 33 tertiary hospitals in 12 countries retrospectively collected data on adult patients diagnosed with ESBL-EC BSI or ESBL-KP BSI between 2004 and 2013. Risk factors for ESBL-EC versus ESBL-KP BSI and for 30-day mortality were examined by bivariate analysis followed by multivariable logistic regression.
The study included 909 patients: 687 with ESBL-EC BSI and 222 with ESBL-KP BSI. ESBL genotype by polymerase chain reaction amplification of 286 isolates was available. ESBL-KP BSI was associated with intensive care unit admission, cardiovascular and neurological comorbidities, length of stay to bacteremia >14 days from admission, and a nonurinary source. Overall, 30-day mortality was significantly higher in patients with ESBL-KP BSI than ESBL-EC BSI (33.7% vs 17.4%; odds ratio, 1.64; P=.016). CTX-M was the most prevalent ESBL subtype identified (218 of 286 polymerase chain reaction-tested isolates, 76%). No differences in clinical characteristics or in mortality between CTX-M and non–CTX-M ESBLs were detected.
Clinical characteristics and risk of mortality differ significantly between ESBL-EC and ESBL-KP BSI. Therefore, all ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae should not be considered a homogeneous group. No differences in outcomes between genotypes were detected.
The limnological conditions during the past 700 yr were reconstructed based on multiproxy analysis of a short sedimentary sequence from El Toro Lake (~40°S, 70°W). Mineralogical and geochemical features, as well as ostracods and chironomids, record hydrologic changes in the El Toro Lake basin. The ostracod Limnocythere rionegroensis var. 1, a reliable indicator of high salinity, and Eucypris fontana, a euryhaline species with preferences for moderate-salinity waters, are studied as paleolimnological proxies. The chironomid fauna indicates less saline conditions in the mid-twentieth century. These salinity changes are interpreted in terms of negative–positive hydrologic balance. High lake level and low salinity between AD 1500 and 1700 match with the wetter and colder climate during the second pulse of the Little Ice Age in northern Patagonia. High-salinity conditions occurred during the late nineteenth century, corresponding to the driest period during the past 400 yr in northeastern Patagonia. An increase in the precipitation around the middle of the twentieth century, in contrast to the records from the Chilean side of the mountains, correlates with a positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode. This is associated, in turn, with a strengthening, poleward shift of the midlatitude westerlies, possibly enhancing easterly moist air flows into central-north Patagonia.
The critical essays in this volume are dedicated to the works of Argentine writer Silvina Ocampo (1903-1993) and introduce readers more fully to a figure who has long been a kind of insider's secret among intellectuals of her country. As the title suggests, the purpose of the volume is to move beyond the codification of Ocampo's use of the supernatural, an early oversimplification of her work. Theessays address the quirkiness, cruelty, violence, and overt sexuality of her works, elements which have impeded a full understanding of her creative vision. Here it becomes clear that Silvina Ocampowas a co-contributor to the literary enterprise of the Sur generation, which produced Jorge Luis Borges, Adolfo Bioy Casares, and Victoria Ocampo, and had a profound influence on writers of the younger generation, such as Alejandra Pizarnik, Sylvia Molloy, Marjorie Agosín and others.
Patricia N. Klingenberg is Professor of Latin American literature at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio.
Fernanda Zullo-Ruiz is Associate Professor of Spanish at Hanover College in Madison, Indiana.
Recent theoretical and observational works claim the existence of galaxies with a characteristic age profile consisting on a negative radial trend followed by a smooth age upturn in its outskirts (“U-shape”). This shape has been generally related to down-bending light distributions; however, the existence of a real link between observed Surface Brightness (SB) profiles and changes in stellar properties such as age is still unclear.
In this work we study the effect of satellite accretion on the building-up of the radial stellar age distribution in the discs of spiral galaxies. In addition, we analyse its effect on other chemical and dynamical properties of these systems up to their outskirts.
To assess the impact of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry for rapid pathogen identification directly from early-positive blood cultures coupled with an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) in two community hospitals. Process measures and outcomes prior and after implementation of MALDI-TOF/ASP were evaluated.
Multicenter retrospective study.
Two community hospitals in a system setting, Houston Methodist (HM) Sugar Land Hospital (235 beds) or HM Willowbrook Hospital (241 beds).
Patients ≥18 years of age with culture-proven Gram-negative bacteremia.
Blood cultures from both hospitals were sent to and processed at our central microbiology laboratory. Clinical pharmacists at respective hospitals were notified of pathogen ID and susceptibility results.
We evaluated 572 patients for possible inclusion. After pre-defined exclusion criteria, 151 patients were included in the pre-intervention group and 242 were included in the intervention group. After MALDI-TOF/ASP implementation, the mean identification time after culture positivity was significantly reduced from 32 hours (±16 hours) to 6.5 hours (±5.4 hours) (P<.001); mean time to susceptibility results was significantly reduced from 48 (±22) hours to 23 (±14) hours (P<.001); and time to therapy adjustment was significantly reduced from 75 (±59) hours to 30 (±30) hours (P<.001). Mean hospital costs per patient were $3,411 less in the intervention group compared with the pre-intervention group ($18,645 vs $15,234; P=.04).
This study is the first to analyze the impact of MALDI-TOF coupled with an ASP in a community hospital setting. Time to results significantly differed with the use of MALDI-TOF, and time to appropriate therapy was significantly improved with the addition of ASP.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(4):425–432
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid source and carbohydrate content on the oxidative status of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles. For that purpose, four diets were formulated with fish oil (FO) and vegetable oils (VO) as the lipid source and with 20 or 0 % gelatinised starch as the carbohydrate source, in a 2×2 factorial design. Liver and intestine antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)), hepatic and intestinal lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as hepatic oxidative stress index (OSI), were measured in fish fed the experimental diets for 73 d (n 9 fish/diet). Carbohydrate-rich diets promoted a decrease in hepatic LPO and OSI, whereas the lipid source induced no changes. Inversely, dietary lipid source, but not dietary carbohydrate concentration, affected LPO in the intestine. Lower intestinal LPO was observed in VO groups. Enzymes responsive to dietary treatments were GR, G6PD and CAT in the liver and GR and GPX in the intestine. Dietary carbohydrate induced GR and G6PD activities and depressed CAT activity in the liver. GPX and GR activities were increased in the intestine of fish fed VO diets. Overall, effects of diet composition on oxidative status were tissue-related: the liver and intestine were strongly responsive to dietary carbohydrates and lipid sources, respectively. Furthermore, different metabolic routes were more active to deal with the oxidative stress in the two organs studied.
The degree of development and operability of the indicators for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) using Descriptor 1 (D1) Biological Diversity was assessed. To this end, an overview of the relevance and degree of operability of the underlying parameters across 20 European countries was compiled by analysing national directives, legislation, regulations, and publicly available reports. Marked differences were found between countries in the degree of ecological relevance as well as in the degree of implementation and operability of the parameters chosen to indicate biological diversity. The best scoring EU countries were France, Germany, Greece and Spain, while the worst scoring countries were Italy and Slovenia. No country achieved maximum scores for the implementation of MSFD D1. The non-EU countries Norway and Turkey score as highly as the top-scoring EU countries. On the positive side, the chosen parameters for D1 indicators were generally identified as being an ecologically relevant reflection of Biological Diversity. On the negative side however, less than half of the chosen parameters are currently operational. It appears that at a pan-European level, no consistent and harmonized approach currently exists for the description and assessment of marine biological diversity. The implementation of the MSFD Descriptor 1 for Europe as a whole can therefore at best be marked as moderately successful.
We reviewed outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center to identify opportunities for antimicrobial stewardship intervention. A definite or possible modification would have been recommended in 60% of courses. Forty-one percent of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy courses were potentially avoidable, including 22% involving infectious diseases consultation.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(9):1103–1105
In the present work was used Dynamical Mechanical Analysis (DMA) to study the magnesium alloy Mg AZ31-B, in plate form with a thickness of 2.5 mm. The plates were processed using Equal Channel Angular Sheet Drawing (ECASD), which is a severe plastic deformation technique, which allows imposing strain without dimensional changes to a metal plate, at room temperature with an angle of 135°. The obtained results show dependence between the storage modulus (M’), temperature and frequency used on the tests. The greater M’ values were obtained at the lower temperatures and at the higher frequency used. However, at lower frequencies M’ response is not affected by the used frequencies. At the higher temperatures there is an M’ reduction, which promotes the material deformation.