In Drosophila melanogaster, the P−M and I−R systems of hybrid dysgenesis are associated with high rates of transposition of P and I elements, respectively, in the germlines of dysgenic hybrids formed by crossing females of strains without active elements to males of strains containing them. Transposition rates are not markedly accelerated in the reciprocal, nondysgenic hybrids. Previous attempts to evaluate the extent to which hybrid dysgenesis-mediated P transposition contributes to mutational variance for quantitative characters by comparing the responses to selection of P−M dysgenic and nondysgenic hybrids have given variable results. This experimental design has been extended to include an additional quantitative trait and the I−R hybrid dysgenesis system. The selection responses of lines founded from both dysgenic and nondysgenic crosses showed features that would be expected from the increase in frequency of initially rare genes with major effects on the selected traits. These results differ from those of previous experiments which showed additional selection response only in lines started from dysgenic crosses, and can be explained by the occasional occurrence of large effect transposable element-induced polygenic mutations in both dysgenic and nondysgenic selection lines. High rates of transposition in populations founded from nondysgenic crosses may account for the apparently contradictory results of the earlier selection experiments, and an explanation is proposed for its occurrence.