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Disturbed sleep and activity are prominent features of bipolar disorder type I (BP-I). However, the relationship of sleep and activity characteristics to brain structure and behavior in euthymic BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives is unknown. Additionally, underlying genetic relationships between these traits have not been investigated.
Relationships between sleep and activity phenotypes, assessed using actigraphy, with structural neuroimaging (brain) and cognitive and temperament (behavior) phenotypes were investigated in 558 euthymic individuals from multi-generational pedigrees including at least one member with BP-I. Genetic correlations between actigraphy-brain and actigraphy-behavior associations were assessed, and bivariate linkage analysis was conducted for trait pairs with evidence of shared genetic influences.
More physical activity and longer awake time were significantly associated with increased brain volumes and cortical thickness, better performance on neurocognitive measures of long-term memory and executive function, and less extreme scores on measures of temperament (impulsivity, cyclothymia). These associations did not differ between BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives. For nine activity-brain or activity-behavior pairs there was evidence for shared genetic influence (genetic correlations); of these pairs, a suggestive bivariate quantitative trait locus on chromosome 7 for wake duration and verbal working memory was identified.
Our findings indicate that increased physical activity and more adequate sleep are associated with increased brain size, better cognitive function and more stable temperament in BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives. Additionally, we found evidence for pleiotropy of several actigraphy-behavior and actigraphy-brain phenotypes, suggesting a shared genetic basis for these traits.
Selective Laser Melting (SLM) involves numerous fabrication parameters, the interaction between those parameters determine the final characteristics of the resulting part and because of the latter, it is considered a complex process. Low-density components is one of the main issues of the SLM process, due to the incorrect selection of process parameters. These defects are undesired in high specialized applications (i.e. aerospace, aeronautic and medical industries). Therefore, the characterization of the defects (pores) found in aluminum parts manufacture by SLM and the relationship with fabrication parameters was performed. A robust orthogonal design of experiments was implemented to determine process parameters, and then parts were manufactured in SLM. Relative density of the samples was then characterized using the Archimedes principle and microscopy; the data was then statistically analyzed in order to determine the optimal process parameters. The main purpose of the present research was to establish the best processing parameters of an in-house SLM system, as well as to characterize the pore geometry in order to fully eliminate pores in a future research.
Studies of psychological interventions for the prevention of depression have found significant effects in the short-term, but the long-term efficacy has yet to be determined. This study evaluated the 8-year effect of a randomized controlled trial for indicated prevention of depression in female caregivers.
A total of 173 non-professional female caregivers with subclinical depressive symptoms not meeting criteria for a major depressive episode (MDE) were randomized to either a brief problem-solving intervention (n = 89) or usual-care control group (n = 84). Blinded evaluators conducted an assessment at the 8-year follow-up. The primary outcome was Depression Status, defined by diagnoses of MDE since the 1-year follow-up using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Disorders of the DSM-5. The secondary outcome was current Depressive Symptom Severity. Regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of the intervention on the outcomes.
There were no significant differences in the Depression Status between the problem-solving (30.3%) and control groups (26.2%) (adjusted OR 1.25, 95% CI −0.58 to 2.69). Depressive Symptom Severity, however, was significantly lower in the problem-solving group compared to the control group at this follow-up, amounting to a small effect size of Cohen's d = 0.39 (adjusted B = −3.32, p = 0.018).
This is the first study to assess such a long-term follow-up of intervention of indicated prevention of depression. Results seem to indicate that the protective effect of the intervention became smaller over time during follow-up. Future research should replicate these results.
Research on the Neolithic monuments and dwellings of Atlantic Europe has shown that plays of light and colour were tools for the social and symbolic construction of the world. The integration of the architectures into the surrounding landscape and the incorporation of the surrounding landscape into the architectures were an essential part of this logic. In this context, recent research in the megalithic passage grave of Dombate has evidenced an unusual physical manifestation of sunlight, which interacts with the decorated back stone. The light-and-shadow phenomenon occurs at sunrise during the period of winter solstice. In this paper we discuss the particulars of this phenomenon and we argue that sunlight when it penetrates the passage and chamber at sunrise on these dates may have dictated how the art was located and applied to the structural stone. Such differentiation seems to have had important cultural and ritual significance and encoded/embedded meaning for the tomb builders and may have implications for the consideration of the symbolic dimension of similar architectures in Atlantic Europe.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: This study seeks to test the feasibility and effectiveness of a brief Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) treatment for patients with persistent pain in a patient-centered medical home. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Participants are recruited via secure messaging, clinic advertisements and clinician referral. Primary care patients age 18 and older with at least 1 pain condition for 12 weeks or more in duration are stratified based on pain severity ratings and randomized into (a) ACT intervention or (b) control group [Enhanced Treatment as Usual (E-TAU)]. Participants in the ACT arm attend 1 individual visit with an integrated behavioral health provider, followed by 3 weekly ACT classes and a booster class 2 months later. E-TAU participants will receive usual care plus patient education handouts informed by cognitive behavioral science. Currently, 17% of our overall goal of 60 patients have completed ACT or enhanced treatment as usual. Average participant age is 49 years old, 70% female, and 70% Hispanic/Latino. Most report multisite pain conditions (e.g., musculoskeletal, fibromyalgia) and 30% are taking opioid medications. Data analysis in this presentation will include early correlational findings from baseline assessments. Upon study completion, we will analyze data using a general linear mixed regression model with repeated measures. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The overall hypothesis is that brief ACT treatment reduces physical disability in patients with persistent pain when delivered by an integrated behavioral health provider in primary care. By examining a subset of patients on opioid medications, we also anticipate a reduction in opioid misuse behaviors. Additionally, it is anticipated that improvements in patient functioning will be mediated by patient change in pain acceptance and patient engagement in values-consistent behaviors. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This pilot study will establish preliminary data about the feasibility and effectiveness of addressing persistent pain in a generalizable, “real-world” integrated primary care setting. Data will help support a larger trial in the future. If effective, findings could improve treatment methods and quality of life for patients with persistent pain using a scalable approach.
To assess produce availability, quality and price in a large sample of food stores in low-income neighbourhoods in California.
Cross-sectional statewide survey.
Between 2011 and 2015, local health departments assessed store type, WIC (Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children)/SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) participation, produce availability, quality and price of selected items in stores in low-income neighbourhoods. Secondary data provided reference chain supermarket produce prices matched by county and month. t Tests and ANOVA examined differences by store type; regression models examined factors associated with price.
Large grocery stores (n 231), small markets (n 621) and convenience stores (n 622) in 225 neighbourhoods.
Produce in most large groceries was rated high quality (97 % of fruits, 98 % of vegetables), but not in convenience stores (25 % fruits, 14 % vegetables). Small markets and convenience stores participating in WIC and/or SNAP had better produce availability, variety and quality than non-participating stores. Produce prices across store types were, on average, higher than reference prices from matched chain supermarkets (27 % higher in large groceries, 37 % higher in small markets, 102 % higher in convenience stores). Price was significantly inversely associated with produce variety, adjusting for quality, store type, and SNAP and WIC participation.
The study finds that fresh produce is more expensive in low-income neighbourhoods and that convenience stores offer more expensive, poorer-quality produce than other stores. Variety is associated with price and most limited in convenience stores, suggesting more work is needed to determine how convenience stores can provide low-income consumers with access to affordable, high-quality produce. WIC and SNAP can contribute to the solution.
The Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS) is widely validated and used as a screening tool for bipolar disorder. However, there is no BSDS validated version for its use in Mexican population. The aim of the present study was to examine the BSDS diagnostic capacity, and to evaluate its criterion validity and internal consistency for its use in Mexican psychiatric patients. We recruited 200 patients who attended the psychiatric outpatient service of a Mental Health Specialized Hospital and were screened for bipolar disorder using BSDS. To determine the cut-off point, sensitivity and specificity, we used the SCID–I diagnosis as the gold standard in 100 participants with bipolar disorder and 100 with major depression. Internal consistency according to Cronbach’s coefficient alpha was .81. The area under ROC curve for the overall discriminability of BSDS against the criterion of SCID–I for bipolar disorder was .90. Finally, a cut-off value of 12 reached the most stable sensitivity and specificity, with predictive powers higher than .80. In conclusion, the properties of the scale including internal consistency, sensitivity and specificity, make of BSDS a valuable instrument for screening bipolar disorder in Mexican psychiatric population.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: This study seeks to test the feasibility and effectiveness of a brief acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) treatment for chronic pain patients in a primary care clinic METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Primary care patients aged 18 years and older with at least 1 pain condition for 12 weeks or more in duration will be recruited. Patients will be randomized into (a) ACT intervention or (b) control group. Participants in the ACT arm will attend 1 individual visit with an integrated behavioral health provider, followed by 3 weekly ACT classes and a booster class 2 months later. Control group will receive enhanced primary care that includes patient education handouts informed by cognitive behavioral science. Data analysis will include 1-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), multiple regression with bootstrapping. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The overall hypothesis is that brief ACT treatment reduces physical disability, improves functioning, and reduces medication misuse in chronic pain patients when delivered by an integrated behavioral health provider in primary care. In addition, it is anticipated that improvements in patient functioning will be mediated by patient change in pain acceptance and patient engagement in value-consistent behaviors. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This pilot study will establish preliminary data about the effectiveness of addressing chronic pain in a generalizable integrated primary care setting. Data will help support a larger trial in the future. Findings have potential to transform the way chronic pain is currently managed in primary care settings, with results that could decrease disability and improve functioning among patients suffering from chronic pain.
The Calar Alto Secondary Eclipse study was a program dedicated to observe secondary eclipses in the near-IR of two known close-orbiting exoplanets around K-dwarfs: WASP-10b and Qatar-1b. Such observations reveal hints on the orbital configuration of the system and on the thermal emission of the exoplanet, which allows the study of the brightness temperature of its atmosphere. The observations were performed at the Calar Alto Observatory (Spain). We used the OMEGA2000 instrument (Ks band) at the 3.5m telescope. The data was acquired with the telescope strongly defocused. The differential light curve was corrected from systematic effects using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique. The final light curve was fitted using an occultation model to find the eclipse depth and a possible phase shift by performing a MCMC analysis. The observations have revealed a secondary eclipse of WASP-10b with depth of 0.137%, and a depth of 0.196% for Qatar-1b. The observed phase offset from expected mid-eclipse was of −0.0028 for WASP-10b, and of −0.0079 for Qatar-1b. These measured offsets led to a value for |ecosω| of 0.0044 for the WASP-10b system, leading to a derived eccentricity which was too small to be of any significance. For Qatar-1b, we have derived a |ecosω| of 0.0123, however, this last result needs to be confirmed with more data. The estimated Ks-band brightness temperatures are of 1647 K and 1885 K for WASP-10b and Qatar-1b, respectively. We also found an empirical correlation between the (R′HK) activity index of planet hosts and the Ks-band brightness temperature of exoplanets, considering a small number of systems.
Cliona delitrix is one of the most abundant and destructive coral-excavating sponges on Caribbean reefs. However, basic aspects of its reproductive biology, which largely determine the species propagation potential, remain unknown. A 2-year study (October 2009 to September 2011) was conducted to determine the reproductive cycle and gametogenesis of a C. delitrix population located in a shallow reef in Florida, USA. Mesohyl tissue collected from randomly chosen and tagged sponge individuals was sampled one to several times a month, and analysed by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cliona delitrix is oviparous and gonochoric, except for a few simultaneous hermaphroditic individuals. The C. delitrix reproductive cycle in Florida is from April to December, and is triggered by an increase in seawater temperature to 25°C. Oogenesis and spermatogenesis were asynchronous among individuals; with different cohorts of oocytes co-occurring in females, and spermatic cysts in males. Granulose cells acted as nurse cells, contributing to the growth and maturation of both female and male gametes. Spawning of gametes was not always synchronized with full moon phase. Unlike most other oviparous sponges, the reproductive cycle of C. delitrix is versatile and includes multiple spawning events during the summer of each year. This characteristic maximizes sponge propagation on coral reefs during the warmer months of the year, particularly when thermal stress induces coral mortality. This aspect, combined with its success on polluted areas, make C. delitrix a suitable bioindicator of coral reef health.
The aim of the present study was to analyse demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as psychiatric diagnoses to identify gender differences in patients with attempted suicide in a Mexican population.
Between September 2010 and September 2012, 140 suicide attempts were documented in the Department of Psychiatry at the General Hospital of Comalcalco (Hospital General de Comalcalco in Spanish) in Tabasco, Mexico. Diagnoses were established using the DSM-IV questionnaire in which Axis I and II were considered. The Suicide Intent Scale was also applied.
In our sample, 63.6% were females and 36.4% males. With regard to socio-demographic characteristics, the predominant marital status in males was single, and in females married (χ2=5.93, df=2, p=0.05). In occupation the male group was mainly unemployed and housewife in females (χ2=55.51, df=4, p<0.001). Male subjects were more likely to consume alcohol (χ2=20.40, df=1, p≤0.001), cannabis (χ2=16.62, df=1, p≤0.001) or tobacco. The prevalence of psychiatric diagnosis was significantly different because, the male group was mainly diagnosed with substance-related disorders, whereas female participants showed a prevalence of stress-related disorders (χ2=34.17, gl=4, p=0.0001).
Our results provide evidence that the characteristics of suicide attempt are different by gender in the Mexican population. Interventions are necessary for the development of prevention strategies that may lead to a reduction in suicidal behaviour. These preventive activities should consider the occupation for the female group and consumption of alcohol, cannabis or tobacco in the male group.
The effect of the heat input on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of the welds has been investigated in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of welds joined with gas metal arc welding (GMAW), using normal production welding parameters. The thermal effect in the HAZ of the welds is important for the optimization of the welding parameters used when weld transformed induced plasticity (TRIP) steels, because this will have a great influence in the mechanical and metallurgical properties of the weld. In this work 3 samples was welded a high, average and low heat input, with the variation of welding parameters to obtain different thermal affectation to investigate the variations in different parts of weld joint: weld, HAZ and base metal, due the heat applied for the welding process used. Mechanical properties were evaluated by tension test, microhardness and fatigue testing and metallurgical evaluation with optical metallograpy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fractograpy and X-Ray diffraction (XRD).The results obtained shows that the mechanical properties of the tension test decrease when the heat input increase and the microhardness exhibit a softening zone in the HAZ with lower hardness and the fatigue life were similar for all heat inputs for the high stress levels, but only in low stress there is a difference. For metallurgical properties the metallographic evaluation shows ferrite, bainite - martensite and retained austenite, and the fractography analysis exhibit a ductile fracture in all cases and the content in volume fraction of retained austenite increases in the HAZ of welds when increasing heat input in to the base metal due the thermal effect.
Rare neuromuscular diseases (NDs) are a group of inherited or acquired neurological pathologies affecting the muscles and the nervous system. Their low prevalence and high geographical dispersion can cause isolation and difficulties in social interaction between affected equals. New technologies, such as videoconferencing, offer a complementary option for improving the health of this population. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a teleassistance program at improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL) through social interaction in adults with NDs. The sample consisted of 45 participants affected by rare NDs. Twenty-four participants were assigned to the experimental group (EG), which participated in the videoconferencing sessions, and 21 to the control group. Three questionnaires were administered: WHO-DAS II, Sickness Impact Profile, and SF-36 Health Survey. Effectiveness was assessed by a pre-post design. An online psychosocial program was applied over three-month period. Data revealed an improvement of the EG in psychosocial variables, e.g. “Getting along with people” (z = –2.289, r = –.47, p ≤ .05) or “Psychosocial Domain” (z = –2.404, r = –.49, p ≤ .05), and in physical variables, e.g. “Life activities” (z = –2.844, r = –.58, p ≤ .05). Social interaction appeared as a relevant factor at improving HRQoL levels. High levels of satisfaction about the teleassistance program were reported.
The long-term effects of dietary strategies designed to combat the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain unknown. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a new dietary strategy based on macronutrient distribution, antioxidant capacity and meal frequency (MEtabolic Syndrome REduction in NAvarra (RESMENA) diet) for the treatment of the MetS when compared with the American Heart Association guidelines, used as Control. Subjects with the MetS (fifty-two men and forty-one women, age 49 (se 1) years, BMI 36·11 (se 0·5) kg/m2) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary groups. After a 2-month nutritional-learning intervention period, during which a nutritional assessment was made for the participants every 15 d, a 4-month self-control period began. No significant differences were found between the groups concerning anthropometry, but only the RESMENA group exhibited a significant decrease in body weight ( − 1·7 %; P= 0·018), BMI ( − 1·7 %; P= 0·019), waist circumference ( − 1·8 %; P= 0·021), waist:hip ratio ( − 1·4 %; P= 0·035) and android fat mass ( − 6·9 %; P= 0·008). The RESMENA group exhibited a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations ( − 26·8 %; P= 0·008 and − 14·0 %; P= 0·018, respectively), while the Control group exhibited a significant increase in glucose (7·9 %; P= 0·011), AST (11·3 %; P= 0·045) and uric acid (9·0 %; P< 0·001) concentrations. LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations were increased (Control group: 34·4 %; P< 0·001 and RESMENA group: 33·8 %; P< 0·001), but interestingly so were the LDL-C:apoB ratio (Control group: 28·7 %; P< 0·001, RESMENA group: 17·1 %; P= 0·009) and HDL-cholesterol concentrations (Control group: 21·1 %; P< 0·001, RESMENA group: 8·7; P= 0·001). Fibre was the dietary component that most contributed to the improvement of anthropometry, while body-weight loss explained changes in some biochemical markers. In conclusion, the RESMENA diet is a good long-term dietary treatment for the MetS.
A total of sixteen lambs were divided into two groups and fed two different diets. Of these, eight lambs were fed a control diet (C) and eight lambs were fed the C diet supplemented with quebracho tannins (C+T). The objective of the present study was to assess whether dietary quebracho tannins can improve the antioxidant capacity of lamb liver and plasma and if such improvement is due to a direct transfer of phenolic compounds or their metabolites, to the animal tissues. Feed, liver and plasma samples were purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analysed by liquid chromatography–MS for phenolic compounds. Profisitinidin compounds were identified in the C+T diet. However, no phenolic compounds were found in lamb tissues. The liver and the plasma from lambs fed the C+T diet displayed a greater antioxidant capacity than tissues from lambs fed the C diet, but only when samples were not purified with SPE. Profisetinidin tannins from quebracho seem not to be degraded or absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. However, they induced antioxidant effects in animal tissues.
The assessment of facial expression is an important aspect of a clinical neurological examination, both as an indicator of a mood disorder and as a sign of neurological damage. To date, although studies have been conducted on certain psychosocial aspects of myasthenia, such as quality of life and anxiety, and on neuropsychological aspects such as memory, no studies have directly assessed facial emotion recognition accuracy. The aim of this study was to assess the facial emotion recognition accuracy (fear, surprise, sadness, happiness, anger, and disgust), empathy, and reaction time of patients with myasthenia. Thirty-five patients with myasthenia and 36 healthy controls were tested for their ability to differentiate emotional facial expressions. Participants were matched with respect to age, gender, and education level. Their ability to differentiate emotional facial expressions was evaluated using the computer-based program Feel Test. The data showed that myasthenic patients scored significantly lower (p < 0.05) than healthy controls in the total Feel score, fear, surprise, and higher reaction time. The findings suggest that the ability to recognize facial affect may be reduced in individuals with myasthenia.
Welding of TRIP steels are one of the technical challenges in the successful application of AHSS in chassis structures. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) is a common welding process used in the automotive industry, for joining mild steels. TRIP steel; however, do not offer the same ease of welding, and process control welding parameters is more critical. The welding parameters window represents the range of acceptable process parameters, primarily control of heat inputs, to obtain an acceptable weld. As a result, the effects of the heat input variations are greater and TRIP steel has a narrower welding parameters window in which acceptable welds can be made. Mechanical properties of the lap joints of TRIP 780 steel 2.8 mm thickness was analyzed, fusion welds were evaluated using fatigue tests on these joints for different heat inputs. Fatigue testing was conducted under a different number of nominal stress ranges to obtain the S/N curves of the weld joints.