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Suicide is a leading cause of premature death in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Although exposure to stressors can play a part in the pathways to death by suicide, there is evidence that some people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia can be resilient to the impact of suicide triggers.
To investigate factors that contribute to psychological resilience to suicidal thoughts and behaviours from the perspectives of people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia.
A qualitative design was used, involving semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Twenty individuals with non-affective psychosis or schizophrenia diagnoses who had experience of suicide thoughts and behaviours participated in the study. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and examined using inductive thematic analysis.
Participants reported that psychological resilience to suicidal thoughts and behaviours involved ongoing effort. This ongoing effort encompassed: (a) understanding experiences (including reconciliation to mental health experiences and seeking reasons to live), (b) active behaviours (including talking to people and keeping occupied), and (c) relationship dynamics (including feeling supported by significant others and mental health professionals).
Psychological resilience was described as a dynamic process that developed over time through the experiences of psychosis and the concomitant suicidal experiences. Psychological resilience can be understood using a multicomponential, dynamic approach that integrates buffering, recovery and maintenance resilience models. In order to nurture psychological resilience, interventions should focus on supporting the understanding and management of psychosis symptoms and concomitant suicidal experiences.
Suicidal behaviour is common in acute psychiatric wards resulting in distress, and burden for patients, carers and society. Although psychological therapies for suicidal behaviour are effective in out-patient settings, there is little research on their effectiveness for in-patients who are suicidal.
Our primary objective was to determine whether cognitive–behavioural suicide prevention therapy (CBSP) was feasible and acceptable, compared with treatment as usual (TAU) for in-patients who are suicidal. Secondary aims were to assess the impact of CBSP on suicidal thinking, behaviours, functioning, quality of life, service use, cost-effectiveness and psychological factors associated with suicide.
A single-blind pilot randomised controlled trial comparing TAU to TAU plus CBSP in in-patients in acute psychiatric wards who are suicidal (the Inpatient Suicide Intervention and Therapy Evaluation (INSITE) trial, trial registration: ISRCTN17890126). The intervention consisted of TAU plus up to 20 CBSP sessions, over 6 months continuing in the community following discharge. Participants were assessed at baseline and at 6 weeks and 6 months post-baseline.
A total of 51 individuals were randomised (27 to TAU, 24 to TAU plus CBSP) of whom 37 were followed up at 6 months (19 in TAU, 18 in TAU plus CBSP). Engagement, attendance, safety and user feedback indicated that the addition of CBSP to TAU for in-patients who are acutely suicidal was feasible and acceptable while on in-patient wards and following discharge. Economic analysis suggests the intervention could be cost-effective.
Psychological therapy can be delivered safely to patients who are suicidal although modifications are required for this setting. Findings indicate a larger, definitive trial should be conducted.
Declaration of interest
The trial was hosted by Greater Manchester Mental health NHS Trust (formerly, Manchester Mental Health and Social Care NHS Trust). The authors are affiliated to the University of Manchester, Greater Manchester Mental Health Foundation Trust, Lancashire Care NHS Foundation trust and the Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre. Y.A. is a trustee for a North-West England branch of the charity Mind.
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
Water cultures were significantly more sensitive than concurrently collected swab cultures (n=2,147 each) in detecting Legionella pneumophila within a Veterans Affairs healthcare system. Sensitivity for water versus swab cultures was 90% versus 30% overall, 83% versus 48% during a nosocomial Legionnaires’ disease outbreak, and 93% versus 22% post outbreak.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
To determine whether use of contact precautions on hospital ward patients is associated with patient adverse events
Individually matched prospective cohort study
The University of Maryland Medical Center, a tertiary care hospital in Baltimore, Maryland
A total of 296 medical or surgical inpatients admitted to non–intensive care unit hospital wards were enrolled at admission from January to November 2010. Patients on contact precautions were individually matched by hospital unit after an initial 3-day length of stay to patients not on contact precautions. Adverse events were detected by physician chart review and categorized as noninfectious, preventable and severe noninfectious, and infectious adverse events during the patient’s stay using the standardized Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s Global Trigger Tool.
The cohort of 148 patients on contact precautions at admission was matched with a cohort of 148 patients not on contact precautions. Of the total 296 subjects, 104 (35.1%) experienced at least 1 adverse event during their hospital stay. Contact precautions were associated with fewer noninfectious adverse events (rate ratio [RtR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51–0.95; P=.02) and although not statistically significant, with fewer severe adverse events (RtR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.46–1.03; P=.07). Preventable adverse events did not significantly differ between patients on contact precautions and patients not on contact precautions (RtR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.59–1.24; P=.41).
Hospital ward patients on contact precautions were less likely to experience noninfectious adverse events during their hospital stay than patients not on contact precautions.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1268–1274
Falls among community-dwelling seniors constitute a major public health concern because of the potential morbidity and mortality associated with the fall. This study examined the informal care networks accessed by Canadian seniors who had visited the Emergency Department as a result of a fall, and considered the implications of the processes of asking for and receiving help on the senior's identity. Four themes were identified. The first was valuing independence. The remaining three themes concerned threats to the participants' identities linked to the need to ask for or receive help from family and friends. They were: becoming indebted, feeling devalued and becoming a burden to others. Seniors were noted to excuse family members from the expectation of helping because of work and family commitments, and illness. Participants described a mutually beneficial relationship with friends wherein both parties valued their independence and provided assistance to the other when needed. Their comments suggested that assistance was viewed as a good to be traded among peers. Our findings indicate that seniors value their independence and may not seek help even when it appears to be available, if asking threatens valued identities. Health and social care practitioners and policy makers responsible for planning and delivery of services should take this into account in order to ensure the best possible care for injured community-dwelling seniors.
The present study evaluated the effect of different levels of energy restriction on metabolic parameters in obese ponies. Relative weight changes, markers of lipid metabolism and oxidant/antioxidant balance were monitored. A total of eighteen obese (body condition score ≥ 7/9) Shetland ponies were studied over a 23·5-week trial, which was divided into three periods. The first period involved a 4-week adaptation period in which each animal was fed 100 % of their maintenance energy requirements needed to maintain a stable obese body weight (MERob). This was followed by a 16·5-week weight-loss period in which ponies were assigned to receive either 100 % (control group, CONTROL), 80 % (slow weight-loss (SLOW) group) or 60 % (rapid weight-loss (RAPID) group) of their MERob. During the 3-week end-phase period, all ponies were again fed 100 % of their MERob. Relative weight loss was higher in the RAPID group (P< 0·001) compared with the SLOW group. No linear relationship was found as a doubling of the percentage of energy restriction was accompanied by a tripling of the percentage of weight loss. Relative weight gain afterwards in the end-phase period was higher in the RAPID group (P< 0·001) compared with the SLOW and CONTROL groups. During the weight-loss period, TAG and NEFA concentrations were highest in the RAPID group, as were α-tocopherol and ferric-reducing ability of plasma concentrations. After 8 weeks of weight loss, the concentrations of advanced oxidation protein products were higher in the RAPID group compared with the SLOW and CONTROL groups (P< 0·001). In conclusion, the level of energy restriction influences the extent of changes in oxidant/antioxidant balance. Practically, more severe energy restriction regimens may be associated with a greater regain of weight after the restriction period.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major pathogen in hospital-acquired infections. MRSA-colonized inpatients who may benefit from undergoing decolonization have not been identified.
To identify risk factors for MRSA infection among patients who are colonized with MRSA at hospital admission.
A case-control study.
A 146-bed Veterans Affairs hospital.
Case patients were those patients admitted from January 2003 to August 2011 who were found to be colonized with MRSA on admission and then developed MRSA infection. Control subjects were those patients admitted during the same period who were found to be colonized with MRSA on admission but who did not develop MRSA infection.
A retrospective review.
A total of 75 case patients and 150 control subjects were identified. A stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) was the significant risk factor in univariate analysis (P<.001). Prior history of MRSA (P = .03), transfer from a nursing home (P = .002), experiencing respiratory failure (P<.001), and receipt of transfusion (P = .001) remained significant variables in multivariate analysis. Prior history of MRSA colonization or infection (P = .02), difficulty swallowing (P = .04), presence of an open wound (P = .002), and placement of a central line (P = .02) were identified as risk factors for developing MRSA infection for patients in the ICU. Duration of hospitalization, readmission rate, and mortality rate were significantly higher in case patients than in control subjects (P< .001, .001, and <.001, respectively).
MRSA-colonized patients admitted to the ICU or admitted from nursing homes have a high risk of developing MRSA infection. These patients may benefit from undergoing decolonization.
To determine the prevalence of Acinetobacter baumannii, an important healthcare-associated pathogen, among mechanically ventilated patients in Maryland.
The Maryland MDRO Prevention Collaborative performed a statewide cross-sectional active surveillance survey of mechanically ventilated patients residing in acute care and long-term care (LTC) facilities. Surveillance cultures (sputum and perianal) were obtained from all mechanically ventilated inpatients at participating facilities during a 2-week period.
All healthcare facilities in Maryland that provide care for mechanically ventilated patients were invited to participate.
Mechanically ventilated patients, known to be at high risk for colonization and infection with A. baumannii, were included.
Seventy percent (40/57) of all eligible healthcare facilities participated in the survey, representing both acute care (n = 30) and LTC (n = 10) facilities in all geographic regions of Maryland. Surveillance cultures were obtained from 92% (358/390) of eligible Patients. A. baumannii was identified in 34% of all mechanically ventilated patients in Maryland; multidrug-resistant A. baumannii was found in 27% of all Patients. A. baumannii was detected in at least 1 patient in 49% of participating facilities; 100% of LTC facilities had at least 1 patient with A. baumannii, compared with 31% of acute care facilities. A. baumannii was identified from all facilities in which 10 or more patients were sampled.
A. baumannii is common among mechanically ventilated patients in both acute care and LTC facilities throughout Maryland, with a high proportion of isolates demonstrating multidrug resistance.
We report on the development of W-band (75–110 GHz) heterodyne receiver technology for large-format astronomical arrays. The receiver system is designed to be both mass producible, so that the designs could be scaled to thousands of receiver elements, and modular. Most of the receiver functionality is integrated into compact monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifier-based multichip modules. The MMIC modules include a chain of InP MMIC low-noise amplifiers, coupled-line bandpass filters, and sub-harmonic Schottky diode mixers. The receiver signals will be routed to and from the MMIC modules on a multilayer high-frequency laminate, which includes splitters, amplifiers, and frequency triplers. A prototype MMIC module has exhibited a band-averaged noise temperature of 41 K from 82 to 100 GHz and a gain of 29 dB at 15 K, which is the state-of-the-art for heterodyne multichip modules.
Dietary restriction for the weight-loss management of obese horses limits the natural trickle-feeding behaviour. During feed restriction, wood shavings are often advised as bedding to prevent dietary supplementation from non-feed sources. Data from twelve overweight/obese horses and ponies of mixed breed and sex, bedded on wood shavings during 16 weeks of feed restriction, were retrospectively evaluated. DM intake (DMI) was restricted to 1·25 % of body mass (BM) daily. Animals were randomly assigned to one of two diets (hay/chaff, n 6; hay/balancer meal, n 6). BM was recorded weekly. Feeding behaviour was recorded by continual observation over 24 h during week 15. The apparent digestibility (gross energy (GE), acid-detergent fibre (ADF) and DM) of feed was determined for all animals by total faecal collection (72 h, week 16). Rates of weight loss were independent of diet type, DM (R2 0·15), GE (R2 0·20) and ADF digestibilities (R2 0·18). Despite similar DMI, faecal DM ranged between 0·52 and 1·16 % of BM daily and was associated with wide ranges in apparent digestibility (GE − 11·34 to 53·08 %; ADF − 50·37 to 42·83 % and DM 2·14 to 57·32 %), which were improbably low for some animals. Apparent digestibilities were associated with DM output (GE R2 0·96; ADF R2 0·99 and DM R2 0·99) and time spent feeding (GE R2 0·62; DM R2 0·61 and ADF R2 0·59), indicating that feed intake was supplemented with wood shavings in at least five of the twelve animals. Quantities of wood shavings ingested (negligible to >3·0 kg/d) were back-calculated from predicted feed digestibilities. All animals remained healthy. Implications of ‘feed-bulking/energy dilution’ for feed-restricted animals need further consideration.
Children in the birth to 5 age range are disproportionately exposed to traumatic events relative to older children, but they are underrepresented in the trauma research literature as well as in the development and implementation of effective clinical treatments and in public policy initiatives to protect maltreated children. Children from ethnic minority groups and those living in poverty are particularly affected. This paper discusses the urgent need to address the needs of traumatized young children and their families through systematic research, clinical, and public policy initiatives, with specific attention to underserved groups. The paper reviews research findings on early childhood maltreatment and trauma, including the role of parental functioning, the intergenerational transmission of trauma and psychopathology, and protective contextual factors in young children's response to trauma exposure. We describe the therapeutic usefulness of a simultaneous treatment focus on current traumatic experiences and on the intergenerational transmission of relational patterns from parent to child. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of current knowledge about trauma exposure for clinical practice and public policy and with recommendations for future research.
Collaboration is used by the US National Security Council as a means to integrate inter-federal government agencies during planning and execution of common goals towards unified, national security. The concept of collaboration has benefits in the healthcare system by building trust, sharing resources, and reducing costs. The current terrorist threats have made collaborative medical training between military and civilian agencies crucial.
This review summarizes the long and rich history of collaboration between civilians and the military in various countries and provides support for the continuation and improvement of collaborative efforts. Through collaboration, advances in the treatment of injuries have been realized, deaths have been reduced, and significant strides in the betterment of the Emergency Medical System have been achieved. This review promotes collaborative medical training between military and civilian medical professionals and provides recommendations for the future based on medical collaboration.
To develop and validate an algorithm to identify and classify noninvasive infections due to Staphylococcus aureus by using positive clinical culture results and administrative data.
Retrospective cohort study.
Veterans Affairs Maryland Health Care System.
Data were collected retrospectively on all S. aureus clinical culture results from samples obtained from nonsterile body sites during October 1998 through September 2008 and associated administrative claims records. An algorithm was developed to identify noninvasive infections on the basis of a unique S. aureus-positive culture result from a nonsterile site sample with a matching International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM), code for infection at time of sampling. Medical records of a subset of cases were reviewed to find the proportion of true noninvasive infections (cases that met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network [NHSN] definition of infection). Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for all infections and according to body site of infection.
We identified 4,621 unique S. aureus-positive culture results, of which 2,816 (60.9%) results met our algorithm definition of noninvasive S. aureus infection and 1,805 (39.1%) results lacked a matching ICD-9-CM code. Among 96 cases that met our algorithm criteria for noninvasive S. aureus infection, 76 also met the NHSN criteria (PPV, 79.2% [95% confidence interval, 70.0%–86.1%]). Among 98 cases that failed to meet the algorithm criteria, 80 did not meet the NHSN criteria (NPV, 81.6% [95% confidence interval, 72.8%–88.0%]). The PPV of all culture results was 55.4%. The algorithm was most predictive for skin and soft-tissue infections and bone and joint infections.
When culture-based surveillance methods are used, the addition of administrative ICD-9-CM codes for infection can increase the PPV of true noninvasive S. aureus infection over the use of positive culture results alone.