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To determine whether (-)-epicatechin (Epi) could decrease visceral adipose tissue and improve the metabolic profile of male offspring rats, after maternal obesity was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD).
Maternal obesity in albino Wistar rats was induced with a HFD, whereas male offspring were fed with chow diet throughout the study. Eight male offspring per group, from different litters, were randomly assigned to the experimental or to the control groups. In the experimental group, Epi was administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg of body weight to the male offspring twice daily for two weeks, beginning at postnatal day (PND).
Weight of visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte size, and several metabolic parameters.
Epi administration in the male offspring induced a significant decrease in the amount of visceral fat (11.61 g less, P < 0.05) and in the size of adipose cells (28% smaller, P < 0.01). Besides, Epi was able to decrease insulin, leptin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment -Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) (P < 0.05), as well as triglycerides, when the experimental group was compared to the untreated male offspring of obese rats (P < 0.01).
Epi administration can reverse the negative effects that maternal obesity has on the male offspring. This could be because Epi reduces the amount of visceral fat and improves metabolic profile.
The aim of this study was to investigate if Mexican-Mestizo individuals with obesity, with or without binge eating disorder (BED), exhibited mutations or other type of genetic variants in the sequence of ANKK1.
Subjects and methods:
Fifty unrelated individuals (21–53 years of age) with obesity, of Mexican-Mestizo ethnic origin were included; 25 of them had BED and 25 presented obesity without BED. The diagnosis of BED was based on criteria proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Besides, we also analyzed 100 individuals with normal body mass index. DNA from blood leukocytes was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and all exons of ANKK1 were sequenced.
After ANKK1 sequencing we did not find any mutations; however, we observed various polymorphisms. One polymorphism, rs4938013 in exon 2 showed an association with obesity, whilst rs1800497 (also known as Taq1A) in exon 8, showed an association with BED (P = 0.020). Remarkable, for this study, the number of individuals for both polymorphisms for and additive model was sufficient to derive strong statistical power (80%, with a P < 0.05).
To our knowledge, this constitutes the first report where the complete sequences of ANKK1 has been analyzed in individuals with obesity, with or without BED. No mutations were found; however, one polymorphism was associated with obesity, with or without BED, and another one was associated with BED.
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