Red vent syndrome (RVS) has previously been reported in returning wild Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar from Canada, Iceland, Ireland, Norway and the UK. Affected fish show reddening and swelling in the perianal/vent area, with scale loss, ulceration and bleeding in severe cases. Studies in the UK and elsewhere report the condition to be induced by Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) larvae. This parasite, commonly reported in several marine fish species, is typically found in the body cavity and the skeletal muscle, but has recently been reported within the vent tissues of salmon. This latter finding may reflect greater efforts in examining this body portion due to current awareness of the parasite presence in this atypical location. Based on clinical observations, affected fish are classified into three categories according to the severity of the external lesions, but quantification of the vent parasite numbers in relation to the categories, and assessment of the relative importance of this area as a site of infestation, are missing to date. This investigation aimed to provide data on parasite number and distribution in the viscera, skeletal muscle, peduncle and vent area and to confirm the identity of the larvae found in the vent and the viscera. The study showed the perianal/vent region harbours the highest total number of A. simplex larvae per fish and, proportionally to fish biomass, is the most heavily infested body location irrespective of external severity levels of RVS.