Although anxiety and mood disorders are listed as separate disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, they frequently coexist. They may be expressed phenotypically as comorbidities or as the provisional entity mixed anxiety-depressive disorder. Patients with both anxiety and depression are more symptomatic, use more health care resources, and have a worse prognosis than those with a single disorder. Recognizing and treating these patients are challenges for physicians because the symptoms of the two disorders often overlap. Administration of effective treatment, comprising both anxiolytic and antidepressant effects, can reduce patient distress and disability, as well as inappropriate utilization of medical services. Medications such as tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, nefazodone, venlafaxine XR (extended release) and mirtazapine, are highly effective in treating comorbid depression and anxiety. These newer agents now represent the pharmacotherapeutic treatments of choice for the comorbid conditions.