Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides, a fungus that commonly contaminates maize. Sex-related effects of FB1 have been observed with respect to carcinogenicity in rodents, to performances in pigs and immunosuppression in mice. In the present study the sex-related effect of FB1 on the pig immune response was determined. Female and castrated male piglets received for 28d either control feed or feed contaminated with 8mg FB1/kgfeed in the form of F. verticillioidesculture material. At day 7 and day 21, animals were immunised subcutaneously with a Mycoplasma agalactiae vaccine. Ingestion of FB1-contaminated feed significantly decreased weight gain in males but had no effect in females. No sex-related difference was observed in biochemical parameters, but a higher level of creatinine was noted in toxin-treated animals. FB1 also altered the pig immune response in a sex-specific manner. In males, ingestion of FB1-contaminated feed significantly decreased specific antibody levels after vaccination as well as the mRNA expression level of IL-10. In females, the toxin has no effect on specific antibodies or on cytokine mRNA levels. The results of the present study indicatethat FB1 is immunosuppressive in pigs. The magnitude of this FB1-induced immunosuppression is highly dependent on sex, with males being more susceptible than females.