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Decisive advances in the fields of nanosciences and nanotechnologies are intimately related to the development of new instruments and of related writing schemes and methodologies. Therefore we have recently proposed exploitation of the nano-structuring potential of a highly Focused Ion Beam as a tool, to overcome intrinsic limitations of current nano-fabrication techniques and to allow innovative patterning schemes urgently needed in many nanoscience challenges. In this work, we will first detail a very high resolution FIB instrument we have developed specifically to meet these nano-fabrication requirements. Then we will introduce and illustrate some advanced FIB processing schemes. These patterning schemes are (i) Ultra thin membranes as an ideal template for FIB nanoprocessing. (ii) Local defect injection for magnetic thin film direct patterning. (iii) Functionalization of graphite substrates to prepare 2D-organized arrays of clusters. (iv) FIB engineering of the optical properties of microcavities.
The nutritional regulation of glucose transporter GLUT4 was studied in eight muscles and four adipose tissues from two groups of preruminant (PR) or ruminant (R) calves of similar age (170d), empty body weight (194kg) at slaughter, and level of net energy intake from birth onwards. Isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 188.8.131.52) activity in muscles was not different between PR and R except in masseter muscle from the cheek (+71 % in R; P<0·003), which becomes almost constantly active at weaning for food chewing. Basal and maximally-insulin-stimulated glucose transport rate (GTR) per g tissue wet weight in rectus abdominis muscle were significantly higher in R calves (+31 and 41 % respectively; P<0·05). GLUT4 protein contents did not differ in muscles from PR and R except in masseter (+74 % in R; P<0·05) indicating that the increased GTR in rectus ubdominis cannot be accounted for by an enhanced GLUT4 expression. GLUT4 mRNAlevels did not differ between the two groups of animals in all muscles suggesting a regulation of GLUT4 at the protein level in masseter. GLUT4 number expressed on a per cell basis was lower in adipose tissue from R calves (-39 % P<0·05) and higher in internal than in peripheral adipose tissues. In summary, the regulation of GLUT4 in calves at weaning differs markedly from that previously described in rodents (for review, see Girard et al. 1992). Furthermore, significant inter-individual variations were shown for metabolic activities in muscle and for biochemical variables in adipose tissue.