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Informed consent for surgery is a complex process particularly in paediatrics. Complexity increases with procedures such as CHD surgery. Regulatory agencies outline informed consent contents for surgery. We assessed and described CHD surgical informed consent contents through survey dissemination to paediatric CHD centres across United States of America.
Publicly available email addresses for 125 paediatric cardiac clinicians at 70 CHD surgical centres were obtained. Nine-item de-identified survey assessing adherence to The Joint Commission informed consent standards was created and distributed via RedCap® 14 March, 2023. A follow-up email was sent 29 March, 2023. Survey link was closed 18 April, 2023.
Thirty-seven surveys were completed. Results showed informed consent documents were available in both paper (25, 68%) and electronic (3, 8%) format. When both (9, 24%) formats were available, decision on which format to use was based on centre protocols (1, 11%), clinician personal preference (3, 33%), procedure being performed (1, 11%), or other (4, 45%). Five (13%) centres’ informed consent documents were available only in English, with 32 (87%) centres also having a Spanish version. Review of informed consent documents demonstrated missing The Joint Commission elements including procedure specific risks, benefits, treatment alternatives, and expected outcomes.
Informed consent for CHD surgery is a complex process with multiple factors involved. Majority of paediatric CHD surgical centres in the United States of America used a generic informed consent document which did not uniformly contain The Joint Commission specified information nor reflect time spent in discussion with families. Further research is needed on parental comprehension during the informed consent process.
Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionately affects Hispanics/Latinos in the United States, yet little is known about neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in this group. We compared the rates of NCI in large well-characterized samples of HIV-infected (HIV+) Latinos and (non-Latino) Whites, and examined HIV-associated NCI among subgroups of Latinos. Methods: Participants included English-speaking HIV+ adults assessed at six U.S. medical centers (194 Latinos, 600 Whites). For overall group, age: M=42.65 years, SD=8.93; 86% male; education: M=13.17, SD=2.73; 54% had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. NCI was assessed with a comprehensive test battery with normative corrections for age, education and gender. Covariates examined included HIV-disease characteristics, comorbidities, and genetic ancestry. Results: Compared with Whites, Latinos had higher rates of global NCI (42% vs. 54%), and domain NCI in executive function, learning, recall, working memory, and processing speed. Latinos also fared worse than Whites on current and historical HIV-disease characteristics, and nadir CD4 partially mediated ethnic differences in NCI. Yet, Latinos continued to have more global NCI [odds ratio (OR)=1.59; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.13–2.23; p<.01] after adjusting for significant covariates. Higher rates of global NCI were observed with Puerto Rican (n=60; 71%) versus Mexican (n=79, 44%) origin/descent; this disparity persisted in models adjusting for significant covariates (OR=2.40; CI=1.11–5.29; p=.03). Conclusions: HIV+ Latinos, especially of Puerto Rican (vs. Mexican) origin/descent had increased rates of NCI compared with Whites. Differences in rates of NCI were not completely explained by worse HIV-disease characteristics, neurocognitive comorbidities, or genetic ancestry. Future studies should explore culturally relevant psychosocial, biomedical, and genetic factors that might explain these disparities and inform the development of targeted interventions. (JINS, 2018, 24, 163–175)
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