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To examine the parental food consumption and diet quality and its associations with children’s consumption in families at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus across Europe. Also, to compare food frequency consumption among parents and children from high-risk families to the European Dietary guidelines/recommendations.
Cross-sectional study using Feel4diabetes FFQ.
Families completed FFQ and anthropometric measures were obtained. Linear regression analyses were applied to investigate the relations between parental food consumption and diet quality and their children’s food consumption after consideration of potential confounders.
2095 European families (74·6 % mothers, 50·9 % girls). The participants included parent and one child, aged 6–8 years.
Parental food consumption was significantly associated with children’s intake from the same food groups among boys and girls. Most parents and children showed under-consumption of healthy foods according to the European Dietary Guidelines. Parental diet quality was positively associated with children’s intake of ‘fruit’ (boys: β = 0·233, P < 0·001; girls: β = 0·134, P < 0·05) and ‘vegetables’ (boys: β = 0·177, P < 0·01; girls: β = 0·234, P < 0·001) and inversely associated with their ‘snacks’ consumption (boys: β = –0·143, P < 0·05; girls: β = –0·186, P < 0·01).
The present study suggests an association between parental food consumption and diet quality and children’s food intake. More in-depth studies and lifestyle interventions that include both parents and children are therefore recommended for future research.
This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of food parenting practices (FPP), including home availability of different types of foods and drinks, parental modelling of fruit intake, permissiveness and the use of food as a reward in the relationship between parental education and dietary intake in European children.
Single mediation analyses were conducted to explore whether FPP explain associations between parents’ educational level and children’s dietary intake measured by a parent-reported FFQ.
Six European countries.
Parent–child dyads (n 6705, 50·7 % girls, 88·8 % mothers) from the Feel4Diabetes-study.
Children aged 8·15 ± 0·96 years were included. Parental education was associated with children’s higher intake of water, fruits and vegetables and lower intake of sugar-rich foods and savoury snacks. All FPP explained the associations between parental education and dietary intake to a greater or lesser extent. Specifically, home availability of soft drinks explained 59·3 % of the association between parental education and sugar-rich food intake. Home availability of fruits and vegetables was the strongest mediators in the association between parental education and fruit and vegetable consumption (77·3 % and 51·5 %, respectively). Regarding savoury snacks, home availability of salty snacks and soft drinks was the strongest mediators (27·6 % and 20·8 %, respectively).
FPP mediate the associations between parental education and children’s dietary intake. This study highlights the importance of addressing FPP in future interventions targeting low-educated populations.
Adoption of healthy dietary and snacking habits could support optimum physical and mental development in children as they define health in adulthood. This study assessed parameters associated with children’s snacking such as food home availability, parenting practices, and parents’ health beliefs. In this cross-sectional study 12 039 children, 49·4% boys 5–12 years, participating in the European Feel4Diabetes-Study were included. Children’s weekly consumption of sweets and salty snacks, home availability of snacks, food parenting practices, and health beliefs were assessed via questionnaires. Logistic regression was applied to explore associations of a) home availability of snacks, b) food parenting practices (permissiveness and rewarding with snacks) and c) parent’s opinions on deterministic health beliefs with children’s consumption of sweets and salty snacks. Results showed that home availability (sweets: ORadj: 4·76, 95 % CI: 4·32, 5·23; salty snacks: ORadj: 6·56, 95 % CI: 5·64, 7·61), allowing to consume (sweets: ORadj: 3·29, 95 % CI: 2·95, 3·67; salty snacks: ORadj: 3·41, 95 % CI: 2·98, 3·90) and rewarding with sweets/salty snacks (sweets: ORadj: 2·69, 95 % CI: 2·23, 3·24; salty snacks: ORadj: 4·34, 95 % CI: 3·57, 5·28) ‘sometimes/or less frequently’ compared to ‘always/or often’ were associated with lower weekly consumption of sweets and snacks. Parents’ disagreement compared to agreement with deterministic health beliefs and inattentive eating were associated with lower consumption of salty snacks and sweets in children. Overall, the findings of this study indicate that attempts to promote healthy snacking habits in children should aim to improve parental dietary habits, food parenting practices, health beliefs, and reducing home availability of unhealthy foods and snacks.
Breakfast (BF) is widely recognized as an important component of a healthy lifestyle and represents an important source of key nutrients in the diet for both adults and children. Furthermore, BF consumption seems to be associated with a better intake of vitamins and minerals in both, children and adolescents.
The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between frequency and characteristics of BF consumption and its relation with micronutrients intake.
Material and Methods
An exhaustive search was carried out in three datasets in March 2019. The search strategy used to identify the articles was as follow: breakfast, food beverages appetite regulation, child nutritional physiological phenomena, diet, digestion, eating, feeding behavior, gastrointestinal absorption, hunger, nutritional requirements, nutritional status, nutritive value, breakfast skipping, meal skipping, fasting, food preferences, diet therapy, child, preschool, adolescent, breakfast skipping and meal skipping. Two independent reviewers performed the data extraction and assessed their quality and risk of bias following the PRISMA methodology and using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was performed comparing results based on type of BF: skip BF, Ready To Eat Cereal (RTEC) BF and other types of BF. DerSimonian and Laird estimators using random effects models were applied for continuous data. Effect sizes were calculated for each outcome.
Out of 3105 articles, we selected 30 full-text articles for inclusion and 7 were considered for meta-analysis.. Children who usually skip BF had significantly lower daily intake of vitamin A (SMD, -10.407; 95%CI: -14.147, -6.667) and vitamin C (SMD, -4.127; 95%CI: -5.091, -3.162) than BF consumers. The intake of vitamin B1 (SMD, -16.378; 95%CI: -29.110, -3.647) and vitamin B2 [SMD, -14.757; 95%CI: -20.247, -9.268] was lower in skippers than RTEC BF consumers.
Regarding to minerals, children who usually consume BF had significantly higher daily consumption of Calcium (SMD, -7.034; 95%CI: -9.029, -5.040), Iron (SMD, -6.552; 95%CI: -9.242, -3.861) and Sodium (SMD, -3.395; 95%CI: -5.554, -1.236) than BF skippers. The intake of Magnesium (SMD, -10.903; 95%CI: -18.078, -3.729) and Potassium (SMD, -6.972; 95%CI: -10.689, -3.254) was higher in RTEC BF consumers than BF skippers.
Evidence suggested that BF consumption and RTEC breakfast consumption seems to be associated with better micronutrient intake
There is scarce research on bone health in early stages due to the difficulties in accessing to bone health assessment methods in absence of pathology conditions. Consequently, there is no much information on the determinants of bone health. The aim of this study is to elucidate the association of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and bone mineral density of children from Aragon accounting for socioeconomic, role parental modelling, dietary and sedentary behavior effects.
Material & Methods
The longitudinal cohort ‘Growth and Feeding during Lactation and Early Childhood in Children of Aragon (CALINA in Spanish)’ included 1,629 born children from Aragon (Spain) in 2009. From those, after 7 years, 339 children (176 boys and 163 girls) were assessed. Bone mineral density (BMD) using Dual X-ray absorciometry (–DXA-), diet quality index (DQI) using a food frequency questionnaire(-FFQ-), sedentary behaviors by questionnaire, and physical activity (using accelerometry-actigraph 3GTX-) were evaluated, as well as if they were or not rapid weight gainers during the first year of life.
From the 339 children, 116 boys (66.5%) and 63 girls (38.7%) met the current MVPA recommendations of at least? 1 hour/day. Boys meeting MVPA recommendations did a mean of 84.02 minutes of MVPA per day and had a BMD of 0.60 g/cm2, while those not meeting the recommendations, did a mean of 43.91 minutes of MVPA and had a BMD of 0.59 g/cm2. Girls meeting MVPA recommendation did 75.52 minutes and had a BMD of 0.59 g/cm2, and those not meeting, did 42.81 minutes of MVPA and had a BMD of 0.58. Models, include BMI z-score (age/sex adjusted based in Anthro standards from WHO), weekly sedentary time, DQI, BMI of the mother and whether or not they had been rapid weight gainers from 0–12months as confounders and were performed for BMD having MVPA as a predictor. A significant association was found only for boys between MVPA and BMD (β = 0.145, p-value = 0.02) while no association was found for girls (β = 0.06, p-value = 0.40).
There is still an important physical activity gap between boys and girls. In boys, physical activity is positively associated with BMD, whereas in girls, no significant associations seem to exist. More research is required to elucidated the effects of lifestyle behaviors on bone health in children.
Evidence suggests that the time spent in different types of sedentary behaviours (e.g. TV watching, use of video games) may be more important in predicting childhood obesity as compared with overall sedentary time (ST). Sedentary time has been associated with unhealthy food and beverage consumption at young ages. The aims of this study were: to examine the association between different beverages consumption and sedentary behaviours and to evaluate the association between the total dietary quality index (DQI) and the adherence to the ST recommendations, in a sample of Spanish children.
The study included a cohort of 381 children (40.7 % boys) aged 7 years, from the Growth and Feeding during Infancy and Early Childhood in Aragon (CALINA) longitudinal study, living in Zaragoza. Data on dietary habits and screen time (watching TV/DVD/videos and playing PC/video games) were parental-reported. ST was categorized based on the recommendations (≤ 2hour/day and > 2hour/day). The DQI was computed from a validated semi quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Generalized linear mixed models, adjusted for maternal education and body mass index, were analysed.
In boys, exceeding the total ST's recommendations (> 2 h/day) was positively associated with high consumption of soft drinks (β = 0.13; CI: 0.02;0.26) while in girls, exceeding the recommendations was positively associated with light drinks (soft drinks with artificial sweeteners) consumption (β = 0.06; CI: 0.02;0.13). Only individual PC/videogames time was associated with beverage consumption. In both gender, excessive PC/video games time (> 2h/day) was associated with high soft drinks consumption (β = 0.51; CI: 0.25; 0.77, β = 1.07; CI: 0.79; 1.35, respectively). Only in girls, there was a positive association between PC/ video games time and light drinks (soft drinks with artificial sweeteners) consumption (β = 0.21; CI: 0.02; 0.41). Regarding the DQI, only boys showed a negative associations between total ST and the DQI (β = -5.91; CI -2.56; -2.56), this means, that those boys that exceeded the total ST's recommendations (> 2 h/day) had a poor total quality diet.
In children, ST was associated with beverages (soft drinks and light drinks) consumption and a poor total diet quality. Soft drinks with artificial sweeteners (light drinks) were chosen mostly by girl´s, whereas, boys preferred regular sugar sweetened soft drinks consumption.
Introduction: Childhood obesity is rising in all countries. Dietary habits are modifiable factors which develop early in life. During growth, several factors, such as peer- influence and food availability, determine the development of food preferences and eating behaviour. Parents play also a key role model by influencing their own food intake.
Objetives: The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of parental role modelling, as predictor of fruits and vegetables intake in European pre-schoolers.
Methods: The present study included a sample of 6633 preschool children (51.9% boys) from six European centres (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain), 3.5 to 5.5 years of age, participating in the ToyBox-study. Data on parental role modelling related with their own fruits and vegetables intake (portions/day) and children's fruits and vegetables intake (portions/day) were collected via standardized proxy-administered questionnaires. Linear regression model was used to assess this association. The adjusted model included socioeconomic status and weight status.
Results: In the unadjusted model, boys whose parents consumed fruits, showed a mean intake of 0.09 (95% CI: 0.08–0.11; p ≤ 0.001) portions of fruits more than the boys whose parents did not consume fruits. Also, girls whose parents consumed fruits, had intake of 0.10 (95% CI: 0.08–0.12; p ≤ 0.001) portions of fruits more than the girls whose parents did not consume fruits.
Moreover, boys whose parents consumed vegetables, showed a mean intake of 0.09 (95% CI: 0.07–0.11; p ≤ 0.001) portions of vegetables more than the boys whose parents did not consume vegetables. Also, girls whose parents consumed fruits, had intake of 0.11 (95% CI: 0.09–0.13; p ≤ 0.001) portions of vegetables more than the girls whose parents did not consume vegetables.
Finally, parental role related with fruits consumption explained 19.3% of fruits intake in European pre-schoolers and the 17.8% of vegetables intake in boys and 21.9% of vegetable intake in girls taking into consideration the potential effect of socioeconomic status of the family and the weight status of the children.
Conclusions: Parental role model of fruit intake has moderate effect on the pre-schooler's dietary intake. However, home environment characteristics such as family rules or availability and accessibility of foods should be considered as potential factors related to food intake in pre-schoolers.
Introduction: Dietary habits are established from a very young age. Parental role modeling is an important factor influencing the eating behavior of their children. Drinking behavior may have an impact in the development of childhood obesity. This study aimed to explore the correlations of core drinking beverages between parents and their children.
Materials and Methods: The present study included children of 3.5–5.5 years and their parents from the (Multifactorial evidence-based approach using behavioral models in understanding and promoting fun, healthy food, play and policy for the prevention of obesity in early childhood) ToyBox study. The study was a kindergarten-based family-involved intervention, in preschool children from six European countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland, and Spain. For this study, we analyzed data from the baseline cross-sectional survey.
Data on consumption frequency of water, homemade or fresh fruit juice, prepacked fruit juice, light beverages and sugared sweetened beverages consumption from parents and their children was obtained via a validated food frequency questionnaire. Parents were given examples of serving sizes and asked about how to self-report their usual consumption per day or week. Beverage consumption of children was reported by their parents and information about frequency and portion sizes was collected. Body weight and height of children was measured and classified according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Bivariate correlations were performed to analyze beverage consumption (servings per day) in children and their parents.
Results: The studied sample included 5266 pairs of children (49.2% girls) and parents (91.7% women) that were included in the analysis.
Girls presented higher correlations in water (r2 = 0,317) and sugar sweetened beverages (r2 = 0,302), whereas boys, presented slightly higher correlations of light soft drinks (r2 = 0,273), pure fruit juices (r2 = 0,308) and prepacked fruit juices (r2 = 0,324), all of them at < 0.01 level of significance. Considering boys and girls together, a slightly higher significant correlation coefficients were found between children-parents’ dyads with overweight/obesity compared to normal weight children-parentś for sugar sweetened beverages (r2 = 0,303) and light soft drinks (r2 = 0,396).
Discussion: Beverage consumption of children and their parents were found to be moderately correlated. Overweight children seem to have better correlations with their parents in relation of sugar sweetened beverages and light soft drinks. Parents should encourage a healthy beverage consumption for their own health and most important, because there are key role models to their children.
CHD is becoming an increasing priority worldwide, as it is one of the main causes of death in low- and middle-income countries lately. This study aims to evaluate the association between beverage consumption patterns and the risk of CHD among Mexican adult population. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from 6640 adults participating in the Health Workers’ Cohort Study. Factor analysis was performed to identify beverage patterns using sex-specific Framingham prediction algorithms to estimate CHD risk. The prevalence of moderate to high CHD risk was 17·8 %. We identified four major beverage consumption patterns, which were categorised as alcohol, coffee/tea, soft drinks and low-fat milk. We observed a lower risk of CHD (OR=0·61; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·80; and OR=0·58; 95 % CI 0·43, 0·79, respectively) among participants in the upper quintile of alcohol or low-fat milk consumption compared with those in the bottom quintile. In contrast, a higher consumption of soft drinks was positively associated with CHD risk (OR=1·64; 95 % CI 1·21, 2·20) when compared with other extreme quintiles. Finally, coffee/tea consumption was not significantly associated with CHD risk. Our findings suggest that a beverage pattern characterised by a higher intake of sugar-sweetened beverages may be associated with an increased risk of CHD among the Mexican adult population, whereas patterns of moderate alcohol intake and low-fat milk may be associated with a reduced risk.
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