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This paper reports on a theoretical analysis of the rich variety of spatio-temporal patterns observed recently in inclined layer convection at medium Prandtl number when varying the inclination angle
and the Rayleigh number
. The present numerical investigation of the inclined layer convection system is based on the standard Oberbeck–Boussinesq equations. The patterns are shown to originate from a complicated competition of buoyancy driven and shear-flow driven pattern forming mechanisms. The former are expressed as longitudinal convection rolls with their axes oriented parallel to the incline, the latter as perpendicular transverse rolls. Along with conventional methods to study roll patterns and their stability, we employ direct numerical simulations in large spatial domains, comparable with the experimental ones. As a result, we determine the phase diagram of the characteristic complex 3-D convection patterns above onset of convection in the
plane, and find that it compares very well with the experiments. In particular we demonstrate that interactions of specific Fourier modes, characterized by a resonant interaction of their wavevectors in the layer plane, are key to understanding the pattern morphologies.
Image pre-processing is highly significant in automated analysis of microscopy images. In this work, non-uniform illumination correction has been attempted using the surface fitting method (SFM), multiple regression method (MRM), and bidirectional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) in digital microscopy images of tuberculosis (TB). The sputum smear positive and negative images recorded under a standard image acquisition protocol were subjected to illumination correction techniques and evaluated by error and statistical measures. Results show that SFM performs more efficiently than MRM or BEMD. The SFM produced sharp images of TB bacilli with better contrast. To further validate the results, multifractal analysis was performed that showed distinct variation before and after implementation of illumination correction by SFM. Results demonstrate that after illumination correction, there is a 26% increase in the number of bacilli, which aids in classification of the TB images into positive and negative, as TB positivity depends on the count of bacilli.
This paper analyses subcritical transition to instability, also known as triggering in thermoacoustic systems, with an example of a Rijke tube model with an explicit time delay. Linear stability analysis of the thermoacoustic system is performed to identify parameter values at the onset of linear instability via a Hopf bifurcation. We then use the method of multiple scales to recast the model of a general thermoacoustic system near the Hopf point into the Stuart–Landau equation. From the Stuart–Landau equation, the relation between the nonlinearity in the model and the criticality of the ensuing bifurcation is derived. The specific example of a model for a horizontal Rijke tube is shown to lose stability through a subcritical Hopf bifurcation as a consequence of the nonlinearity in the model for the unsteady heat release rate. Analytical estimates are obtained for the triggering amplitudes close to the critical values of the bifurcation parameter corresponding to loss of linear stability. The unstable limit cycles born from the subcritical Hopf bifurcation undergo a fold bifurcation to become stable and create a region of bistability or hysteresis. Estimates are obtained for the region of bistability by locating the fold points from a fully nonlinear analysis using the method of harmonic balance. These analytical estimates help to identify parameter regions where triggering is possible. Results obtained from analytical methods compare reasonably well with results obtained from both experiments and numerical continuation.
This paper investigates the non-normal nature of premixed flame–acoustic interaction. The thermoacoustic system is modelled using the acoustic equations for momentum and energy, together with the equation for the evolution of the flame front obtained from the kinematic G-equation. As the unsteady heat addition acts as a volumetric source, the flame front is modelled as a distribution of monopole sources. Evolutions of the system are characterized with a measure of energy due to fluctuations. In addition to the acoustic energy, the energy due to fluctuations considered in the present paper accounts for the energy of the monopole sources. The linearized operator for this thermoacoustic system is non-normal, leading to non-orthogonality of its eigenvectors. Non-orthogonal eigenvectors can cause transient growth even when all the eigenvectors are decaying. Therefore, classical linear stability theory cannot predict the finite-time transient growth observed in non-normal systems. In the present model, the state space variables include the monopole source strengths in addition to the acoustic variables. Inclusion of these variables in the state space is essential to account for the transient growth due to non-normality. A parametric study of the variation in transient growth due to change in parameters such as flame location and flame angle is performed. In addition to projections along the acoustic variables of velocity and pressure, the optimal initial condition for the self-evolving system has significant projections along the strength of the monopole distribution. Comparison of linear and corresponding nonlinear evolutions highlights the role of transient growth in subcritical transition to instability. The notion of phase between acoustic pressure and heat release rate as an indicator of stability is examined.
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