To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To determine the prospective relationship between changes in sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and central adiposity in older children.
Dietary intakes of children were obtained by 3 d food records at ages 10 and 13 years. Waist circumference (WC) and weight and height to determine BMI were measured at 10 and 13 years and total body fat mass (TBFM) at 13 years by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Analyses were conducted using multivariable linear regression. Reporting errors were measured and participants were categorized as under-, plausible and over-reporters of dietary intakes.
Community-based British cohort of children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.
Among 2455 older children, increased SSB consumption from ages 10 to 13 years was associated with higher WC (standardized β=0·020, P=0·19), BMI (β=0·028, P=0·03) and TBFM (β=0·017, P=0·20) at 13 years. Effects were strengthened among plausible dietary reporters (n 1059): WC (β=0·097, P<0·001), BMI (β=0·074, P<0·001) and TBFM (β=0·065, P=0·003). The association between change in SSB and WC was weakened, but remained statistically significant after accounting for BMI (β=0·042, P=0·02) and TBFM (β=0·048, P=0·01).
Higher consumption of SSB from ages 10 to 13 years was associated with a larger WC at age 13 years independent of differences in total adiposity. Accounting for dietary reporting errors strengthened associations. Our findings further support recommendations to limit intakes of SSB to reduce excess weight gain in children and suggest that SSB have an additional deleterious effect on central adiposity.
Currently 67 % of the US population is overweight or obese and obesity is associated with several chronic medical conditions. Geographic areas where individuals lack access to healthy foods have been termed ‘food deserts’. The study aim was to examine if area of residence within Metro Detroit was associated with dietary intake, food and shopping behaviours, and BMI.
Participants were recruited in the waiting area of four primary-care clinics.
Individuals (n 1004) completed a questionnaire comprising four sections: demographics; personal health status including self-reported height and weight; a modified diet, transportation and shopping survey; and a subscale from the Diet and Health Knowledge Survey.
Seventy-four per cent of participants were female and the mean age was 46·7 (sd 15·0) years. In univariate analyses, living in Detroit was associated with being African American, unemployment, less education, no regular exercise, worse health self-rating and obesity (P < 0·0005 for all). Participants living in Detroit had a 3·06 (95 % CI 1·91, 4·21) kg/m2 larger BMI compared with people living outside the city (P < 0·0005) in univariate analyses, but the effect was attenuated when adjusted for demographics, disease status, shopping and eating behaviours, dietary intakes and diet knowledge (β = −0·46 kg/m2, 95 % CI −2·23, 1·30 kg/m2, P = 0·60).
Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent both inside (82·9 %) and outside (72·8 %) the city of Detroit, presenting a major public health problem. However, living in this food desert was not significantly associated with BMI after potential covariates were considered.
Pre-pregnancy obesity has been associated with adverse birth outcomes. Poor essential fatty acid (EFA) and micronutrient status during pregnancy may contribute to these associations. We assessed the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI and nutritional patterns of maternal micronutrient and EFA status during mid-pregnancy.
A cross-sectional analysis from a prospective cohort study. Women provided non-fasting blood samples at ≤20 weeks’ gestation that were assayed for red cell EFA; plasma folate, homocysteine and ascorbic acid; and serum retinol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, α-tocopherol, soluble transferrin receptors and carotenoids. These nutritional biomarkers were employed in a factor analysis and three patterns were derived: EFA, Micronutrients and Carotenoids.
The Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy Study, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Pregnant women (n 129).
After adjustment for parity, race/ethnicity and age, obese pregnant women were 3·0 (95 % CI 1·1, 7·7) times more likely to be in the lowest tertile of the EFA pattern and 4·5 (95 % CI 1·7, 12·3) times more likely to be in the lowest tertile of the Carotenoid pattern compared with their lean counterparts. We found no association between pre-pregnancy obesity and the Micronutrient pattern after confounder adjustment.
Our results suggest that obese pregnant women have diminished EFA and carotenoid concentrations.
To evaluate long-term patterns of weight change and progression to overweight and obesity during adulthood.
Prospective study. Changes in mean BMI, waist circumference (WC) and weight were assessed over a mean 26-year follow-up (1971–1975 to 1998–2001). Mean BMI (95 % CI) and mean WC (95 % CI) of men and women in BMI and age groups were computed. Mean weight change in BMI and age categories was compared using analysis of covariance.
Framingham Heart Study Offspring/Spouse Nutrition Study.
Men and women (n 2394) aged 20–63 years.
During follow-up, increases in BMI (men: 2·2 kg/m2; women: 3·7 kg/m2) and WC (men: 5·7 cm; women: 15·1 cm) were larger in women than men. BMI gains were greatest in younger adults (20–39 years) and smallest in obese older adults (50–69 years). The prevalence of obesity doubled in men (to 33·2 %) and tripled in women (to 26·6 %). Among normal-weight individuals, abdominal obesity developed in women only. The prevalence of abdominal obesity increased 1·8-fold in men (to 53·0 %) and 2·4-fold in women (to 71·2 %). Weight gain was greatest in the youngest adults (20–29 years), particularly women. Gains continued into the fifth decade among men and then declined in the sixth decade; in women gains continued into the sixth decade.
Patterns of weight change and progression to obesity during adulthood differ in men and women. Preventive intervention strategies for overweight and obesity need to consider age- and sex-specific patterns of changes in anthropometric measures.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) during pregnancy increases the risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes. Maternal nutritional status may be a modifiable risk factor for antenatal depression. We evaluated the association between patterns in mid-pregnancy nutritional biomarkers and MDD.
Prospective cohort study.
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
Women who enrolled at ≤20 weeks’ gestation and had a diagnosis of MDD made with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition) at 20-, 30- and 36-week study visits. A total of 135 women contributed 345 person-visits. Non-fasting blood drawn at enrolment was assayed for red cell essential fatty acids, plasma folate, homocysteine and ascorbic acid; serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, retinol, vitamin E, carotenoids, ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors. Nutritional biomarkers were entered into principal components analysis.
Three factors emerged: Factor 1, Essential Fatty Acids; Factor 2, Micronutrients; and Factor 3, Carotenoids. MDD was prevalent in 21·5 % of women. In longitudinal multivariable logistic models, there was no association between the Essential Fatty Acids or Micronutrients pattern and MDD either before or after adjustment for employment, education or pre-pregnancy BMI. In unadjusted analysis, women with factor scores for Carotenoids in the middle and upper tertiles were 60 % less likely than women in the bottom tertile to have MDD during pregnancy, but after adjustment for confounders the associations were no longer statistically significant.
While meaningful patterns were derived using nutritional biomarkers, significant associations with MDD were not observed in multivariable adjusted analyses. Larger, more diverse samples are needed to understand nutrition–depression relationships during pregnancy.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.