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After five positive randomized controlled trials showed benefit of mechanical thrombectomy in the management of acute ischemic stroke with emergent large-vessel occlusion, a multi-society meeting was organized during the 17th Congress of the World Federation of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology in October 2017 in Budapest, Hungary. This multi-society meeting was dedicated to establish standards of practice in acute ischemic stroke intervention aiming for a consensus on the minimum requirements for centers providing such treatment. In an ideal situation, all patients would be treated at a center offering a full spectrum of neuroendovascular care (a level 1 center). However, for geographical reasons, some patients are unable to reach such a center in a reasonable period of time. With this in mind, the group paid special attention to define recommendations on the prerequisites of organizing stroke centers providing medical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke, but not for other neurovascular diseases (level 2 centers). Finally, some centers will have a stroke unit and offer intravenous thrombolysis, but not any endovascular stroke therapy (level 3 centers). Together, these level 1, 2, and 3 centers form a complete stroke system of care. The multi-society group provides recommendations and a framework for the development of medical thrombectomy services worldwide.
The Coneybury ‘Anomaly’ is an Early Neolithic pit located just south-east of Stonehenge, Wiltshire. Excavations recovered a faunal assemblage unique in its composition, consisting of both wild and domestic species, as well as large quantities of ceramics and stone tools, including a substantial proportion of blades/bladelets. We present a suite of new isotope analyses of the faunal material, together with ancient DNA sex determination, and reconsider the published faunal data to ask: What took place at Coneybury, and who was involved? We argue on the basis of multiple lines of evidence that Coneybury represents the material remains of a gathering organised by a regional community, with participants coming from different areas. One group of attendees provided deer instead of, or in addition to, cattle. We conclude that the most likely scenario is that this group comprised local hunter-gatherers who survived alongside local farmers.
The point-line collinearity graph
of the maximal 2-local geometry for the largest simple Fischer group,
, is extensively analysed. For an arbitrary vertex
is described in detail. As a consequence, it follows that
. The collapsed adjacency matrix of
is given as well as accompanying computer files which contain a wealth of data about
The Illerup Aadal weapon sacrifice mirrors the material world of a Germanic army from c. AD 210. Apart from the personal equipment and the weaponry of more than 400 warriors, it comprises four horses. The present paper gives the first conclusive analysis of the skeletal remains of these animals, involving osteological investigation and strontium isotope analysis. The results shed new light on the character of the sacrificial ceremonies which unfolded in the aftermath of Iron Age battles; on the nature of cavalry and its significance in Iron Age warfare; and on the much debated question as to where the army of Illerup Aadal had originally come from.
We review the evidence for the earliest agriculture in Finland. The claims are all based on pollen analysis. Some claims go back to the Neolithic period. We contest these claims critically and argue that the ‘early cereal-type’ pollen grains may in fact come from large-grained wild grasses, and cannot be taken as clear evidence for cultivation in the absence of other lines of evidence. Cultivation of cereals in Finland may have started as late as the start of the Iron Age in c. 500 BC.
In this paper we determine the suborbits of Janko’s largest simple group in its conjugation action on each of its two conjugacy classes of involutions. We also provide matrix representatives of these suborbits in an accompanying computer file. These representatives are used to investigate a commuting involution graph for J4.
The chamber graph of the maximal 2-local geometry for M24, the Mathieu group of degree 24, is analysed extensively. In addition to determining the discs around a fixed chamber of the chamber graph, the geodesic closure of an opposite pair of chambers is investigated.
This paper contains a variety of results about the action of Con way‘s largest simple group upon the crosses in the Leech lattice. These results are tailor-made for use in ‘A Monster Graph, I'(Proc. London Math. Soc. (3) 90 (2005) 42-60), where a graph related to the Monster simple group is studied.
In this paper, the authors determine the suborbits of Conways largest simple group in its conjugation action on each of its three conjugacy classes of involutions. Matrix representatives of these suborbits are also provided in an accompanying computer file.
This paper establishes recognition theorems for the finite Lie-type groups defined in odd characteristic $p$. The hypotheses of these theorems are couched in terms of certain local data in the form of an amalgam which is called a weak $BN$-pair of rank 2. The groups to be recognized are completions of these amalgams which satisfy the condition of being of local characteristic $p$ (a condition satisfied by the finite Lie-type groups defined in characteristic $p$). The results presented will find application in one of the ongoing revisions of the finite simple group classification.
In this article the evidence of pig exploitation in the prehistory of the Italian peninsula and Sicily is presented. Though some differences in pig morphology seem to have existed between different parts of the country, a broadly consistent diachronic pattern of change has emerged. In the Mesolithic fairly small wild boars (with bones quite large in relation to the teeth) lived in Italy. For most of the Neolithic pigs of a similar size and shape could be found across the peninsula but signs that a few changes in systems of pig exploitation had started occurring can be found at several sites. This is interpreted as most probably indicating the beginning of a slow and gradual process of domestication of local animals. The hypothesis that early and middle Neolithic pig husbandry relied mainly on imported animals can be fairly confidently refuted. Sometime during the late Neolithic and/or the early Bronze Age, practices of pig husbandry seem to have changed throughout the country, and a much clearer separation appears between the wild and domestic populations. The average size of domestic pigs decreased, probably as a consequence of a closer confinement of domestic herds, but wild boar size seems to have increased, possibly as a consequence of climatic change or of a release in hunting pressure. Recent Italian wild boars (of the traditional Maremman type) are, however, as small as their Mesolithic counterparts, a possible indication that habitat fragmentation caused by human demographic pressure brought about a further change in wild boar size.
It is usually assumed by historians of archaeology that the ‘concept of prehistory’ and the terms ‘prehistoric’ and ‘prehistorian’ first appeared in Britain and/or France in the mid-nineteenth century. This contribution demonstrates that the Scandinavian equivalent terms forhistorisk and förhistorisk were in use substantially earlier, appearing in print first in 1834. Initial usage by Molbech differed slightly from that of the present day, but within three years the modern usage had been developed. The concept of prehistory was first developed at the same time by C.J. Thomsen, though he did not use the word. It was used more frequently in the nationalism debates of the 1840s, particularly by J.J.A. Worsaae. One of the other protagonists, the Norwegian Peter Andreas Munch, was probably responsible for introducing the concept to Daniel Wilson in 1849, and suggesting that an English equivalent to forhistorisk was required.
Previously, the hypoglossal nerve has not undergone intra-operative monitoring during neck operations in which the nerve is at risk. As society becomes increasingly litigious, this may change. This study describes the technique and the microvoltages used in 10 patients for intra-operative stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve with the Magstim nerve stimulator. We confirm that the technique is possible, simple and safe, with minimal disturbance to the patient, anaesthetist and surgeon.
The structure of the point-line collinearity graph of the maximal 2-local geometry for the Monster simple group is investigated. The main results describe the first two discs around an arbitrary vertex.