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The regulation of lipogenesis and lipolysis mechanisms related to consumption of lipid has not been studied in swimming crab. The aims of present study were to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid levels on growth, enzymes activities, and expression of genes of lipid metabolism in hepatopancreas of juvenile swimming crab. Three isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain crude lipid levels at 5.8 %, 9.9 % and 15.1 %, respectively. Crabs fed the diet containing 15.1 % lipid had significantly lower weight gain, specific growth rate and survival, and higher feed conversion ratio than those fed the 5.8 % and 9.9 % lipid diets. Crabs fed 5.8 % lipid had lower malondialdehyde concentrations in the hemolymph and hepatopancreas than those fed the other diets. Highest glutathione peroxidase in hemolymph and superoxide dismutase in hepatopancreas were observed in crabs fed 5.8 % lipid. The lowest fatty acid synthase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in hepatopancreas were observed in crabs fed 15.1 % lipid, whereas crabs fed 5.8 % lipid had lower carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity than those fed the other diets. Crabs fed 15.1 % lipid showed lower hepatopancreas expression of genes involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis, lipoprotein clearance, fatty acid uptake, fatty acid oxidation, lipid anabolism and lipid catabolism than those fed the other diets, whereas expression of some genes of lipoprotein assembly and fatty acid oxidation were up-regulated compared with crabs fed 5.8 % lipid. Overall, high dietary lipid level can inhibit growth, reduce feed utilization and reduce antioxidant enzyme activities. Moreover, dietary lipid influenced enzyme activities and gene expression involved in lipid metabolism of juvenile swimming crab.
We use apatite fission track ages from sediments recovered by the International Ocean Discovery Program in the Laxmi Basin, Arabian Sea, to constrain exhumation rates in the western Himalaya and Karakoram since 15.5 Ma. With the exception of a Triassic population in the youngest 0.93 Ma samples supplied from western Peninsular India, apatite fission track ages are overwhelmingly Cenozoic, largely <25 Ma, consistent with both a Himalaya–Karakoram source and rapid erosion. Comparison of the minimum cooling age of each sample with depositional age (lag time) indicates an acceleration in exhumation between 7.8 and 7.0 Ma, with lag times shortening from ∼6.0 Myr at 8.5–7.8 Ma to being within error of zero between 7.0 and 5.7 Ma. Sediment supply at 7.0–5.7 Ma was largely from the Karakoram, and to a lesser extent the Himalaya, based on U–Pb zircon ages from the same samples. This time coincides with a period of drying in the Himalayan foreland caused by weaker summer monsoons and Westerly winds. It also correlates with a shift of erosion away from the Karakoram, Kohistan and the Tethyan Himalaya towards more erosion of the Lesser and Greater Himalaya and Nanga Parbat, as shown by zircon U–Pb provenance data, and especially after 5.7 Ma based on Nd isotope data. Samples younger than 5.7 Ma have lag times of ∼4.5 Myr, similar to Holocene Indus delta sediments.
The late Miocene is a time of strong environmental change in SW Asia. Himalayan foreland stable isotope data show a shift in the dominant vegetation of the flood plains away from trees and shrubs towards more C4 grasslands at a time when oceanic upwelling increased along the Oman margin. We present integrated geochemical and colour spectral records from International Ocean Discovery Program Site U1456 in the eastern Arabian Sea to reconstruct changing chemical weathering and erosion, as well as relative humidity during this climatic transition. Increasing hematite/goethite ratios derived from spectral data are consistent with long-term drying after c. 7.7 Ma. Times of dry conditions are largely associated with weaker chemical alteration measured by K/Rb and reduced coarse clastic flux, constrained by Si/Al and Zr/Al. A temporary phase of increased humidity from 6.3 to 5.95 Ma shows a reversal to stronger weathering and erosion. Wetter conditions can result in both more and less alteration due to the nonlinear relationship between weathering rates, precipitation and sediment transport times. Trends in relative aridity do not follow existing palaeoceanographic records and are not apparently linked to changes in Tibetan or Himalayan elevation, but more closely correlate with global cooling. An apparent opposing trend in the humidity evolution in the Indus compared to southern China, as tracked by spectrally estimated hematite/goethite, likely reflects differences in the topography in the Indus compared to the Pearl River drainage basins, as well as the generally wetter climate in southern China.
There is emerging evidence that glycaemic variability (GV) plays an important role in the development of diabetic complications. The current study aimed to compare the effects of lifestyle intervention (LI) with and without partial meal replacement (MR) on GV. A total of 123 patients with newly diagnosed and untreated type 2 diabetes (T2D) were randomised to receive either LI together with breakfast replacement with a liquid formula (LI+MR) (n 62) or LI alone (n 61) for 4 weeks and completed the study. Each participant was instructed to have three main meals per d and underwent 72-h continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) both before and after intervention. Measures of GV assessed by CGM included the incremental AUC of postprandial blood glucose (AUCpp), standard deviation of blood glucose (SDBG), glucose CV and mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions (MAGE). After a 4-week intervention, the improvements in systolic blood pressure (P=0·046) and time in range (P=0·033) were more pronounced in the LI+MR group than in the LI group. Furthermore, LI+MR caused significantly greater improvements in all GV metrics including SDBG (P=0·005), CV (P=0·002), MAGE (P=0·016) and AUCpp (P<0·001) than did LI. LI+MR (v. LI) was independently associated with improvements in GV after adjustment of covariates (all P<0·05). Our study showed that LI+MR led to significantly greater improvements in GV compared with LI, suggesting that LI+MR could be an effective treatment to alleviate glucose excursions.
The water and energy sectors of an economy are inextricably linked. Energy is required in water production, distribution, and recycling, while water is often used for energy generation. In many geographical locations, the energy-water nexus is exacerbated by the shortage of both fresh water resources and energy generation infrastructure. New materials, including metamaterials, are now emerging to address the challenges of providing renewable energy and fresh water, especially to off-the-grid communities struggling with water shortages. Novel nanomaterials have fueled recent technology breakthroughs in solar water desalination, fog and dew collection, and cloud seeding. Materials for passive thermal management of buildings and individuals offer promising strategies to reduce the use of energy and water for heating and cooling. While many challenges remain, emerging materials and technologies improve sustainable management of water and energy resources.
The microstructure evolution of a typical nickel-based superalloy was studied in the strain range of 0.1–0.9 at 1110 °C/0.01 s−1 by using the electron backscattered diffraction technique. It was found that the evolution of recrystallized microstructures, grain boundary characteristics, and textures was closely related to strain level. With the increasing strain level, the fraction of equiaxed dynamic recrystallization (DRX) grains increased significantly at the expense of the large non-recrystallized grains, and there was a decrease in total low angle grain boundaries fraction and a simultaneous increase in the fraction of high angle grain boundaries. In addition, the occurrence of DRX promoted the formation of Σ3 boundaries, and the coherent Σ3 boundaries were much easier to form at the strain above 0.5. On the other hand, 〈100〉 component of the textures became stronger with the increasing strains, and the lack of 〈111〉 orientations can also be observed in the textures at high strains above 0.7.
Owing to the development of new technologies, the epigenome, a second dimensional method for genome analysis has emerged. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and noncoding RNAs, regulate gene expression without changing the genetic sequence. These epigenetic mechanisms normally modulate gene expression, trans-generational effects and inherited expression states in various biological processes. Abnormal epigenetic patterns typically cause pathological conditions, including cancers, age-related diseases, and specific cartilage and bone diseases. Facing the rapidly developing epigenetic field, we reviewed epigenetic mechanisms and their involvement with the skeletal system and their role in skeletal development, homeostasis and degeneration. Finally, we discuss the prospects for the future of epigenetics.
Ethanolamine (Etn) contained in milk is the base constituent of phosphatidylethanolamine and is required for the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and bacteria, which is important for maintenance of the gut microbiome and intestinal development. The present study investigated the effect of Etn on intestinal function and microbiome using 21-d-old Sprague–Dawley rats treated with 0, 250, 500 and 1000 μm Etn in drinking water for 2 weeks immediately after weaning. Growth performance, intestinal morphology, antioxidant capacity and mucosal immunity, as well as gut microbiota community composition, were evaluated. Metagenomic prediction and metabolic phenotype analysis based on 16S RNA sequencing were also carried out to assess changes in metabolic functions. We found that weaned rats administered 500 μm Etn enhanced mucosal antioxidant capacity, as evidenced by higher superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels in the jejunum (P<0·05) compared with those in the control group. Predominant microbes including Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Elusimicrobia and Tenericutes were altered by different levels of Etn compared with the control group. An Etn concentration of 500 µm shifted colonic microbial metabolic functions that are in favour of lipid- and sugar-related metabolism and biosynthesis. Etn also altered the metabolic phenotypes such as anaerobic microbial counts, and oxidative stress tolerance at over 250 µm. This is the first report for a role of Etn in modifying gut microbiota and intestinal functions. Our findings highlighted the important role of Etn in shaping gut microbial community and promotes intestinal functions, which may provide a better insight of breast-feeding to infant’s gut health.
Cycle slip detection for single frequency Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data is currently mainly based on measurement modelling or prediction, which cannot be effectively performed for kinematic applications and it is difficult to detect or repair small cycle slips such as half-cycle slips. In this paper, a new method that is based on the total differential of ambiguity and Least-Squares Adjustment (LSA) for cycle slip detection and repair is introduced and validated. This method utilises only carrier-phase observations to build an ambiguity function. LSA is then conducted for detecting and repairing cycle slips, where the coordinate and cycle slips are obtained successively. The performance of this method is assessed through processing short and long baselines in static and kinematic modes and the impact of linearization and atmospheric errors are analysed at the same time under a controlled variable method. The results indicate this method is very effective and reliable in detecting and repairing multiple cycle slips, especially small cycle slips.
Light carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) has a spatial distribution of intensity and phase, which attracts considerable interest regarding several potential applications in optical and quantum scenarios recently. Spiral phase plates are commonly used elements for generating and analyzing OAM states. In this study, we put forward a method of directly writing binary multi-sector phase plates using the femtosecond laser. These phase plates are engraved on fused silica, which could be applied in high-intensity regimes. Different binary multi-sector phase plates were generated with high quality, which were proved by the observation of their structures, accompanied by detecting the beam patterns with the Gaussian beams. The proposed method provides a crucial basis for the rapid manufacturing of phase plates using convenient equipment, which can generate the superposition OAM states and may lead to the capability of measuring the high-dimensional entanglement.
This paper reports the measurement of the energy loss of protons at the energy of 100 keV penetrating a partially ionized hydrogen plasma. The plasma of ne ≈ 1015–16 cm−3; Te ≈ 1–2 eV and lifetime of about 8 µs is created by the hydrogen gas discharge. The experimental results show an increase of a factor of 2.8 in the energy loss, which are in good agreement with the Bethe, Standard Stopping Model, Li–Petrasso and Vlasov models’ predictions within the error limit. The Bethe–Bloch Coulomb logarithm term is found to increase by a factor of 4.0 for free electrons as compared with the situation where bound electrons prevail. The potential application of protons energy loss for diagnosing the electron density in plasma is proposed too.
We present radiocarbon (14C) measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from surface waters of 11 lakes, widely distributed in China. Surface lake water DIC F14C values show distinct differences, and we relate these to the physical exchange character (“open” or “closed”) of each lake. Open lakes studied here generally have lower DIC F14C values than closed lakes. We present a simple model of a lake water cycle to calculate an average residence time for each lake. Comparisons between lake DIC F14C and average residence time shows that the DIC F14C increases with the average residence time and reflects a steady-state.
More than 200 molecular clouds were newly found distributed beyond the Outer arm in the extreme outer Galaxy (EOG) region by MWISP. Those MCs roughly following the HI′s distribution well delineate the outermost spiral structure (the Outer Scutum-Centaurus arm) and warp of our Galaxy. Besides, those MCs show different σv-Radius relation and exhibit higher value of αvir than MCs in the inner Galaxy.
We identified human paleodietary changes from inhabitants of the Guanzhong basin since 8000 BP, based on published carbon and nitrogen isotopic measurements on bones, fauna and plant remains. We also directly measured 14C ages, δ13C and δ15N values from bones unearthed at the Zhouyuan site, west of Guanzhong, in order to reconstruct paleodietary changes of the ancient inhabitants. We found that during the Laoguantai period, animal foods were the main source of nourishment with supplementary plant-derived foods. After this period, plant-derived foods became the main food source, with supplementary animal sources. The development of dry farming led to increased consumption of foxtail millet and broomcorn millet. This trend persisted and marked a fundamental shift from hunting, gathering, and fishing to farming and animal domestication. The dietary trends of the ancient inhabitants also show pronounced regional differences through time. The use of domestic animals was proportionally higher in the eastern part of the Guanzhong region, while wild animals were more common in the west.
Because of their large separation bright radio galaxies characterize the structure of the universe on the scales of clusters and superclusters. In order to calculate the spatial correlation function we choose radio galaxies in radio surveys, for which the redshift values have been measured. One is from Bright Radio Sources at 178 MHz (Liang, Riley and Longair 1983), and another is from All-Sky Catalogue of Bright Extragalactic Radio Sources at 2.7 GHz (Wall and Peacock 1985).
Formation of a nanometer-scale oxide surface layer is common when a material is exposed to oxygen-containing environment. Employing aberration-corrected analytical transmission electron microscopy and using single crystal SnSe as an example, we show that for an alloy, a second thin amorphous layer can appear underneath the outmost oxide layer. This inner amorphous layer is not oxide based, but instead originates from solid-state amorphization of the base alloy when its free energy rises to above that of the metastable amorphous state; which is a result of the composition shift due to the preferential depletion of the oxidizing species, in our case, the outgoing Sn reacting with the oxygen atmosphere.