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Individuals with depression often do not respond to medication or psychotherapy. Radically open dialectical behaviour therapy (RO DBT) is a new treatment targeting overcontrolled personality, common in refractory depression.
To compare RO DBT plus treatment as usual (TAU) for refractory depression with TAU alone (trial registration: ISRCTN 85784627).
RO DBT comprised 29 therapy sessions and 27 skills classes over 6 months. Our completed randomised trial evaluated RO DBT for refractory depression over 18 months in three British secondary care centres. Of 250 adult participants, we randomised 162 (65%) to RO DBT. The primary outcome was the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), assessed masked and analysed by treatment allocated.
After 7 months, immediately following therapy, RO DBT had significantly reduced depressive symptoms by 5.40 points on the HRSD relative to TAU (95% CI 0.94–9.85). After 12 months (primary end-point), the difference of 2.15 points on the HRSD in favour of RO DBT was not significant (95% CI –2.28 to 6.59); nor was that of 1.69 points on the HRSD at 18 months (95% CI –2.84 to 6.22). Throughout RO DBT participants reported significantly better psychological flexibility and emotional coping than controls. However, they reported eight possible serious adverse reactions compared with none in the control group.
The RO DBT group reported significantly lower HRSD scores than the control group after 7 months, but not thereafter. The imbalance in serious adverse reactions was probably because of the controls' limited opportunities to report these.
Declaration of interest
Six of the 16 authors have received royalties or fees for RO DBT. R.J.H. is co-owner and director of Radically Open Ltd, the RO DBT training and dissemination company. D.K. reports grants outside the submitted work from NIHR. T.R.L. receives royalties from New Harbinger Publishing for sales of RO DBT treatment manuals, speaking fees from Radically Open Ltd and a grant outside the submitted work from the Medical Research Council. He was codirector of Radically Open Ltd between November 2014 and May 2015 and is married to Erica Smith-Lynch, the principal shareholder and one of two current directors of Radically Open Ltd. H.O’M. reports personal fees from the Charlie Waller Institute and Improving Access to Psychological Therapy. S.C.R. provides RO DBT supervision through S C Rushbrook Ltd. I.T.R. reports grants outside the submitted work from NIHR and Health & Care Research Wales. M.St. reports personal fees from British Isles DBT Training, Stanton Psychological Services Ltd, and Taylor & Francis Ltd. M.Sw. reports personal fees from British Isles DBT Training, Guilford Press, Oxford University Press and Taylor & Francis Ltd. B.W. was codirector of Radically Open Ltd between November 2014 and February 2015.
In a world where the only constant is change, schools are faced with the need to adapt creatively to changing societal demands, parental expectations, and children with increasingly diverse needs. Lasting and effective change can only occur with systemic and organisational change, and this essay argues that school-based psychologists are an invaluable, but potentially overlooked, resource in driving and supporting effective, evidence-supported, organisational change in schools. It is suggested that this can occur best when school-based psychologists are able to move away from direct service models that treat individual children to a systemic model that supports whole-school change.
Paragonimiasis, human lung fluke disease, is a foodborne anthropozoonosis caused by the trematodes assigned to Paragonimus and is regarded by the World Health Organization as a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD). The life cycle of this medically important parasite centres on a complex freshwater biological community that includes two intermediate hosts: a mollusc and a decapod, usually a brachyuran. Although there is a perception that the biology, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of Paragonimus is well understood, in reality, this is not the case, especially in Africa. Much remains unknown concerning the life-cycle of the parasite, its transmission, the current epidemiology of the disease, diagnosis and the effectiveness of treatment. Furthermore, cases of paragonimiasis may be misdiagnosed as resistant tuberculosis (TB) because of the similar pulmonary symptoms and no remission after anti TB therapy. The endemic foci of human paragonimiasis in Africa have been reported mainly in the forest zones of Upper Guinea (Liberia, Guinea and Ivory Coast) and Lower Guinea (Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon). Despite the perceived medical importance of paragonimiasis, relatively little attention has been paid to this NTD since its discovery in Africa in the 1960s. This review focuses on the current understanding of the life cycle and transmission of Paragonimus in Africa, discusses its diagnosis and public health importance and highlights many outstanding gaps in the knowledge that still exist for this NTD.
To outline the pathways a cohort of first attendees to our headache clinics had taken over the years in search of explanations and treatment for their headaches. To establish a greater awareness of the shortcomings and failures in their medical journey in the hope that better headache management will emerge in primary care.
At first attendance in primary care most headache sufferers will not receive a firm diagnosis. Treatments provided are often ineffective and so many patients embark on a somewhat random self-made journey searching for a remedy. If they reach a Headache Clinic the most common diagnoses are ‘chronic migraine’ and ‘medication overuse headache’. They are either no better or worse than when their headaches first started despite their efforts.
We undertook a prospective questionnaire-based study of over 200 patients on first attendance at each of our headache clinics, three based in District General Hospitals and one in a tertiary referral centre. We documented the patients’ headache characteristics, the ‘burden’ of their headaches, functional handicap and the financial costs incurred seeking help before referral. We also documented what our patients understood about their headache disorder and the treatments previously tried.
Most patients had not been given a formal diagnosis in primary care and many remained unconvinced of the benign nature of their headache problem and wanted further investigations. A few had sought help from headache charities. Many had unrealistic attitudes to their problem and medication overuse was rife. A few patients had been offered triptans in primary care. Key deficiencies in the primary care management of these patients included failure to provide a formal headache diagnosis, inadequate understanding of the nature and mechanism of headaches and failure to follow a resilient management strategy. We provide a more effective management pathway in primary care.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Unidentified depression in primary care is a public health concern, globally. There is a need for brief, valid and easily administered tools in primary care.
To estimate reliability and validity of the newly developed Primary care Screening Questionnaire for Depression (PSQ4D), a four-item tool, with ‘yes’ or ‘no’ options.
PSQ4D was administered verbally (time required, <1 min) by primary care physicians to adult outpatients (n=827) in six primary care settings in Kerala, India. A psychiatrist evaluated each patient on the same day, using ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria for Research, based on unstructured clinical interview.
The Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency reliability was 0.80; kappa coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.9 and that for interrater reliability was 0.72. At a score ≥2, sensitivity was 0.96, specificity was 0.87, positive predictive value was 0.74, negative predictive value was 0.98, positive likelihood ratio was 7.4 and negative likelihood ratio was 0.05.
When physician administered, PSQ4D has good reliability. At a cut-off score of ≥2, it has high sensitivity and specificity to identify depressive disorder in primary care.
A controversy at the 2016 IUCN World Conservation Congress on the topic of closing domestic ivory markets (the 007, or so-called James Bond, motion) has given rise to a debate on IUCN's value proposition. A cross-section of authors who are engaged in IUCN but not employed by the organization, and with diverse perspectives and opinions, here argue for the importance of safeguarding and strengthening the unique technical and convening roles of IUCN, providing examples of what has and has not worked. Recommendations for protecting and enhancing IUCN's contribution to global conservation debates and policy formulation are given.
Few data are available regarding the use of metolazone in infants in cardiac intensive care. Researchers need to carry out further evaluation to characterise the effects of this treatment in this population.
This is a descriptive, retrospective study carried out in patients less than a year old. These infants had received metolazone over a 2-year period in the paediatric cardiac intensive care unit at our institution. The primary goal was to measure the change in urine output from 24 hours before the start of metolazone therapy to 24 hours after. Patient demographic variables, laboratory data, and fluid-balance data were analysed.
The study identified 97 infants with a mean age of 0.32±0.25 years. Their mean weight was 4.9±1.5 kg, and 58% of the participants were male. An overall 63% of them had undergone cardiovascular surgery. The baseline estimated creatinine clearance was 93±37 ml/minute/1.73 m2. Initially, the participants had received a metolazone dose of 0.27±0.10 mg/kg/day, the maximum dose being 0.43 mg/kg/day. They had also received other diuretics during metolazone initiation, such as furosemide (87.6%), spironolactone (58.8%), acetazolamide (11.3%), bumetanide (7.2%), and ethacrynic acid (1%). The median change in urine output after metolazone was 0.9 ml/kg/hour (interquartile range 0.15–1.9). The study categorised a total of 66 patients (68.0%) as responders. Multivariable analysis identified acetazolamide use (p=0.002) and increased fluid input in the 24 hours after metolazone initiation (p<0.001) as being significant for increased urine output. Changes in urine output were not associated with the dose of metolazone (p>0.05).
Metolazone increased urine output in a select group of patients. Efficacy can be maximised by strategic selection of patients.
Dementia is a major health problem with a growing number of people affected by the condition, both directly and indirectly through caring for someone with dementia. Many live at home but little is known about the range and intensity of the support they receive. Previous studies have mainly reported on discrete services within a single geographical area. This paper presents a protocol for study of different services across several sites in England. The aim is to explore the presence, effects, and cost-effectiveness of approaches to home support for people in later stage dementia and their carers.
This is a prospective observational study employing mixed methods. At least 300 participants (people with dementia and their carers) from geographical areas with demonstrably different ranges of services available for people with dementia will be selected. Within each area, participants will be recruited from a range of services. Participants will be interviewed on two occasions and data will be collected on their characteristics and circumstances, quality of life, carer health and burden, and informal and formal support for the person with dementia. The structured interviews will also collect qualitative data to explore the perceptions of older people and carers.
This national study will explore the components of appropriate and effective home support for people with late stage dementia and their carers. It aims to inform commissioners and service providers across health and social care.
In his pioneering survey, New Maps of Hell (1960), Kingsley Amis observed that science fiction (sf) is preoccupied with ‘the idea as hero’ rather than subtle uses of language, narrative or characterization. Martin Scofield subsequently adapted Amis's definition of sf to his analysis of the American short story ‘in which the overall idea, rather than character, plot or “themes” in the usual sense, dominates the conception of the work and gives it its unity or deliberate disunity’. Unlike Amis, who tended to prefer his sf to be either escapist adventures or satirical exercises, Scofield's adaptation allows him to define the short story in self-reflexive terms: ‘a work that is dominated by a single guiding idea or mood and achieves a perceptible overall artistic coherence’ (p. 5). Symptomatic of the taxonomic problems that underwrite both sf- and short story criticism, ‘the idea as hero’ can paradoxically refer to a story that is thematic and plot-driven, atmospheric and impressionistic. Not only does the short story lie at the intersection between high and low culture, between the little magazine and the mass-market periodical, as Tim Armstrong has observed, but so too does science fiction. As Farah Mendlesohn has argued, ‘whatever else it is, sf literature is not popular’; it exists ‘at variance from the standards and demands of both the literary establishment and the mass market’. Sf and the short story complement each other not only formally but also culturally: their liminal position questions the assumptions by which critics have often discriminated between what is or is not literary. Yet, as Nicola Humble has noted, ‘there is something wrong with the way in which we have mapped the literary field of the first half of the twentieth century’. This ‘something wrong’ is accentuated when we attempt to re-map not only the short story but also sf as part of literary production since the 1890s.
The Scientific Romance
The genealogy of science fiction is a notoriously tangled family tree. Critics have variously traced its origins to ancient and classical texts, such as The Epic of Gilgamesh and Lucian's ‘A True History’; to the intellectual and religious convulsions between Protestantism and Catholicism in the seventeenth century; and to the impact of the Industrial Revolution upon Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (1818).
Stress-related pathophysiology drives comorbid trajectories that elude precise prediction. Allostatic load algorithms that quantify biological “wear and tear” represent a comprehensive approach to detect multisystemic disease processes of the mind and body. However, the multiple morbidities directly or indirectly related to stress physiology remain enigmatic. Our aim in this article is to propose that biological comorbidities represent discrete pathophysiological processes captured by measuring allostatic load. This has applications in research and clinical settings to predict physical and psychiatric comorbidities alike. The reader will be introduced to the concepts of allostasis, allostasic states, allostatic load, and allostatic overload as they relate to stress-related diseases and the proposed prediction of biological comorbidities that extend rather to understanding psychopathologies. In our transdisciplinary discussion, we will integrate perspectives related to (a) mitochondrial biology as a key player in the allostatic load time course toward diseases that “get under the skin and skull”; (b) epigenetics related to child maltreatment and biological embedding that shapes stress perception throughout lifespan development; and (c) evolutionary drivers of distinct personality profiles and biobehavioral patterns that are linked to dimensions of psychopathology.
During the fall 2015 semester, I (i.e., the last author of this response) taught a doctoral seminar on performance appraisal. Although this course was a general survey of research and theory regarding work performance and performance appraisal processes and methods, we also talked extensively about the value of performance ratings to organizations, raters, and ratees. It was indeed serendipitous that this focal article came out when it did. As part of the final examination requirements (and, admittedly, as a pedagogical experiment), I asked the six PhD students in this course (i.e., the first six authors of this response) to read and respond to the Adler et al. (2016) debate regarding the relative merits of performance ratings. To highlight the perspectives of this next generation of industrial and organizational psychologists, I have collected here various representative comments offered by each of these emerging scholars on this issue.
We have undertaken an adaptive optics imaging survey of extra-solar planetary systems and stars showing interesting radial velocity trends from high precision radial velocity searches. Adaptive Optics increases the resolution and dynamic range of an image, substantially improving the detectability of faint close companions. This survey is sensitive to objects less luminous than the bottom of the main sequence at separations as close as 1″. We have detected stellar companions to the planet bearing stars HD 114762 and Tau Boo. We have also detected a companion to the non-planet bearing star 16 Cyg A.