The Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus is categorized as Endangered on the IUCN Red List, as well as on the European and Spanish Red Lists. Spain is home to the most important breeding population of Egyptian vultures in Europe but this population has differing trends at a regional scale. We present data for the Egyptian vulture population in the Cantabrian Mountains, north-west Spain, during the last 3 decades and assess the main threats to the species there. The Egyptian vulture population in the Cantabrian Mountains was estimated to be 175 breeding pairs in 2008, which comprised 13–14% of the Spanish population. This population has been stable, or increasing slightly, since 2000. During 2000–2008 4.3% of the Cantabrian Egyptian vulture population was affected by the use of illegal poison. During the same period the number of sheep and goats reared (which contributes to the maintenance of Egyptian vulture territories) was reduced by 27.4%, which could lead to food shortages for the vultures in the near future. Currently 32 breeding pairs (18.3% of the population) have wind turbines within their foraging areas, with an average of 59 wind turbines per territory (range 1–176). During the next few years this number will increase to 110 turbines per territory within 69 vulture territories (39.4% of the population). Nearly a third (32.6%) of breeding territories are located outside protected areas. Better coordination between administrative areas is needed to guarantee the conservation of the Cantabrian Mountains population of Egyptian vultures through effective surveillance and protection in the numerous existing protected areas.