Three new prototype traps, (S1–S3), were developed during studies of the behavioural ecology of Glossina swynnertoni Austen in Kenya and Tanzania. The traps were compared in latin square experiments relative to the regular biconical trap as a standard and a selection of other conventional tsetse traps. Observations were also made on fly behaviour in the vicinity of traps using electric nets and sticky materials. When baited with acetone and 1-octen-3-ol, the S1 trap was 3.5 times as effective in catching G. swynnertoni in Kenya as the biconical trap. In Tanzania, the relative performance of the S1 and biconical traps differed; also, both traps were found to be inferior to an all-black, sticky 1-m2target. A second prototype (S2) performed slightly better than the biconical trap, but was still inferior to the black target. The final prototype (S3) was 2.9 times as effective as the biconical trap and performed as well as the black target. The potential for further improvement of traps for capturing G. swynnertoni and flies of the G. morsitans Westwood group is discussed.