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Topography after Cu CMP is one of the main issues in constructing reliable Cu interconnects. The wafer level topography is greatly influenced by many polishing properties such as removal non-uniformity and planarization efficiency, and also by many polishing variables. Among the variables, Cu deposition thickness and over polishing time are easily controllable, and closely related to the topography. For a given polishing condition, the topography can be minimized through the optimization of Cu deposition thickness and over polishing time. A model is proposed to account for the correlation between these variables and the wafer level topography. Numerical result of this model shows a strong dependency of optimized Cu deposition thickness and over polishing time on the removal non-uniformity, dishing susceptibility and over plated bump size.
The field of Molecular Astrophysics or “Astrochemistry” has grown considerably since its inception in the late 1930’s. Molecules have been observed in astronomical environments as diverse as comets in the solar system and galaxies at the highest redshifts. The common thread in these studies is that molecules are excellent probes of the physical structure and dynamics of such regions, owing to the complexity of their energy level structure and the resulting emission and absorption spectra. In addition, the chemical characteristics provide a powerful tool to study the evolution of astrophysical regions. Molecules also play an active role in the energy balance of clouds. Interstellar space is a unique laboratory in which chemical processes can occur that are not normally found on Earth. Indeed, astrochemistry is a highly interdisciplinary subject, linking the macrocosm (galaxies, stars, planets) with the microcosm (basic chemical processes and spectroscopy). The increased potential of ground- and space-based observational facilities over the full wavelength range provides a wealth of information about the physical environments in which molecules occur and makes it possible to study the development of molecular complexity throughout the Universe.
Emission features of C2, C3, CN, and dust in Comets Thiele (1985m), Hartley-Good (1985l), and Giacobini-Zinner (1984e) have been analyzed and their mass loss rates of about 0.5, 1.1, and 0.8 Mg s−1 have been determined.
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