We report high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observation of a high density of dislocations with edge components (∼1016 m−2) in nanocrystalline (NC) body-centered cubic (bcc) Mo prepared by high-pressure torsion. We also observed for the first time of the ½<111> and <001> pure edge dislocations in NC Mo. Crystallographic analysis and image simulations reveal that the best way using HRTEM to study dislocations with edge components in bcc systems is to take images along <110> zone axis, from which it is possible to identify ½<111> pure edge dislocations, and edge components of ½<111> and <001> mixed dislocations. The <001> pure edge dislocations can only be identified from <100> zone axis. The high density of dislocations with edge components is believed to play a major role in the reduction of strain rate sensitivity in NC bcc metals and alloys.