The most fundamental goal of the synthetic chemist is control of molecular architecture. With respect to small molecules (i.e., those of molecular weight less than a few thousand), this means absolute control of chemical connectivity and stereochemistry – complete specification of molecular structure. But in macromolecular chemistry, controlled architecture has meant something quite different. Because polymerizations are in general statistical processes, conventional polymeric materials are characterized by substantial heterogeneity in chain length, sequence and stereochemistry . Control is exercised in a statistical sense only, and considerable skill is required to control even the average properties of the chain population and the dispersity in those properties.