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The use of radio frequency (RF) waves in fusion plasmas for heating, for non-inductive current generation, for profile control and for diagnostics has been well established. The RF waves, excited by antenna structures placed near the wall of a fusion device, have to propagate through density fluctuations at the plasma edge. These fluctuations can modify the properties of the RF waves that propagate towards the core of the plasma. A full-wave electromagnetic computational code ScaRF based on the finite difference frequency domain (FDFD) method has been developed to study the effect of density turbulence on RF waves. The anisotropic plasma permittivity used in the scattering studies is that for a magnetized, cold plasma. The code is used to study the propagation of an RF plane wave through a modulated, spatially periodic density interface. Such an interface could arise in the edge region due to magnetohydrodynamic instability or drift waves. The frequency of the plane wave is taken to be in the range of the electron cyclotron frequency. The scattering analysis is applicable to ITER-like plasmas, as well as to plasmas in medium sized tokamaks such as TCV, ASDEX-U and DIII-D. The effect of different density contrasts across the interface and of different spatial modulations are discussed. While ScaRF is used to study a periodic density fluctuation, the code is general enough to include different varieties of density fluctuations in the edge region – such as blobs and filaments, and spatially random fluctuations.
In this article we adopt the view that emotion dysregulation is characterized by emotion regulation dynamics that are defined as dysfunctional based on contextual criteria. We regard the construct of emotion regulation as valuable because it permits the integration of the classic view of emotions as interfering with human functioning and contemporary views of emotion as adaptive and beneficial. To define patterns that reflect emotion dysregulation, we explain our views of emotion as a dynamic process, and emotion regulation as the bidirectional interplay between emotions and actions/thoughts (extrinsic factors) and the contextual factors that constitute the criteria for that interplay reflecting dysregulation. This conceptualization of emotion regulation and dysregulation leads to methods for studying the intrinsic dynamics of emotion, extrinsic factors that change the intrinsic dynamics of emotion, and how emotion regulation changes over time at multiple time scales. We then apply this thinking to several emotion dysregulation patterns. Emotion regulation is a complex construct, embracing emotion as regulator and as regulated, as self- and other-regulated, and as incorporating both top-down and bottom-up regulatory processes. We highlight an emerging line of research on the development of emotion regulation in early childhood and indicate how this work can inform understanding of emotion dysregulation and the emergence of psychopathology.
Radio frequency (RF) waves are routinely used in tokamak fusion plasmas for plasma heating, current control, as well as in diagnostics. These waves are excited by antenna structures placed near the tokamak’s wall and they have to propagate through a turbulent layer known as the scrape-off layer, before reaching the core plasma (which is their target). This layer exhibits coherent density fluctuations in the form of filaments and blobs. The scattering processes of RF plane waves by a single filament is studied with the assumption that the filament has a cylindrical shape and infinite length. Furthermore, besides the major toroidal component of the externally imposed magnetic field, there is also a small poloidal magnetic field component. Considering also that the cylindrical filament’s axis is not necessarily aligned with the toroidal direction, the total magnetic field is in general neither aligned with the axis of the cylinder nor with the toroidal direction. The investigation concerns the case of electron cyclotron (EC) waves (of frequency
) for tokamak applications. The study covers a variety of density contrasts between the filament and the ambient plasma, different magnetic field inclinations with respect to the cylinder axis (for the same magnitude of magnetic induction
) and a wide range of filament radii.
There has been a growing interest, over the past few years, on understanding the effect on radio frequency waves due to turbulence in the scrape-off layer of tokamak plasmas. While the far scrape-off layer density width is of the order of centimetres in contemporary tokamaks, in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), and in future fusion reactors, the corresponding width will be of the order of tens of centimetres. As such, this could impact the spectral properties of the waves and, consequently, the transport of wave energy and momentum to the core plasma. The turbulence in the scrape-off layer spans a broad range of spatial scales and includes blobs and filaments that are elongated along the magnetic field lines. The propagation of radio frequency waves through this tenuous plasma is given by Maxwell’s equations. The characteristic properties of the plasma appear as a permittivity tensor in the expression for the current in Ampere’s equation. This paper develops a formalism for expressing the permittivity of a turbulent plasma using the homogenization technique. This technique has been extensively used to express the dielectric properties of composite materials that are spatially inhomogeneous, for example, due to the presence of micro-structures. In a similar vein, the turbulent plasma in the scrape-off layer is spatially inhomogeneous and can be considered as a composite material in which the micro-structures are filaments and blobs. The classical homogenization technique is not appropriate for the magnetized plasma in the scrape-off layer, as the radio frequency waves span a broad range of wavelengths and frequencies – from tens of megahertz to hundreds of gigahertz. The formalism in this paper makes use of the Fourier space components of the electric and magnetic fields of the radio frequency waves for the scattered fields and fields inside the filaments and blobs. These are the eigenvectors of the dispersion matrix which, using the Green’s function approach, lead to a homogenized dielectric tensor.
In the present study, poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanostructures were obtained by oxidative polymerization of monomer ‘3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene’ in the presence of poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) in FeCl3 as an oxidizing agent. The PEDOT nanostructures were characterized using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques respectively. The morphology of PEDOT nanostructures revealed flowerlike-shape agglomerates with an increase in the concentrations of PAA. The SEM, TEM and FTIR studies revealed that the presence of PAA could only induce a change in morphology during polymerization, but could not influence the molecular structure of the PEDOT nanostructures. The synthesized PEDOT nanostructures were used as electrode material for supercapacitor. The electrochemical capacitive properties of the PEDOT nanostructures were investigated with the Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques in the three-electrode cell system. The capacitance of the PEDOT electrode was measured in 0.1M LiClO4 and 2M H2SO4 electrolytes. The highest specific capacitance value of 215F/g for a PEDOT nanostructured electrode was calculated in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte.
The present paper reports the utilization of a boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond film (BDD) in electrochemical oxidization (ECO) process of organic phenol compound in 0.1 M H2SO4 water solution. The nano BDD films were synthesized by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MWPCVD), and then characterized by Raman spectroscopy and SEM before and after the electrochemical oxidation treatment. For the ECO treatment performed to the test sample solution, an observation of the first and the last voltammetric plots exhibited a qualitatively differences between the two plots where the first one represent the initial concentration and the last one the signal produced by the organic solution after treatment. UV-Vis analysis through the application of a standard calibration curve, quantitatively confirmed the composition of phenol remaining in the sample solution subdued to the ECO treatment.
The cultivar Ajaya (IET 8585) exhibits durable broad-spectrum resistance to bacterial blight (BB) disease of rice and is widely used as a resistance donor. The present study was carried out to decipher the genetics of BB resistance in Ajaya and map the gene(s) conferring resistance. Genetic analysis in the F2 indicated a quantitative/additive nature of resistance governed by two loci with equal effects. Linked marker analysis and allelic tests revealed that one of the resistance genes is xa5. Sequence analysis of a 244 bp region of the second exon of the gene-encoding Transcription factor IIAγ (the candidate gene for xa5) confirmed the presence of xa5. Bulked-segregant analysis (BSA) revealed the putative location of the two quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/genes associated with resistance on chromosomes 5 and 8. Composite interval mapping located the first locus on Chr. 5S exactly in the genomic region spanned by xa5 and the second locus (qtl BBR 8.1) on Chr. 8L. Owing to its differential disease reaction with a set of seven hyper-virulent isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae, a map location on Chr. 8L, which was distinct from xa13 and data from allelism tests, the second resistance locus in Ajaya was determined to be novel and was designated as xaAj. A contig map spanning xaAj was constructed in silico and the genomic region was delimited to a 13·5 kb physical interval. In silico analysis of the genomic region spanning xaAj identified four putatively expressed candidate genes, one of which could be involved in imparting BB resistance in Ajaya along with xa5.
The importance of nanodiamond in biological and technological applications has been recognized, and applied in drug delivery, biochip, sensors and biosensors. Nanodiamond (ND) and nitrogen doped nanodiamond (NND) films were deposited on n-type silicon films, and later functionalized with enzyme glucose oxidase (GOX). Functionalized electrode has been characterized using different techniques; i.e.fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR) -, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical techniques, respectively. Under this work, the ND/GOX and NND/GOX electrodes have demonstrated providing sensitive glucose concentration response. Besides, the cytotoxic effects of the NDs have been studied in vitro. Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK293) cells are cultured in the presence of the films then toxicity has been detected using MTT-based cytotoxicity assays utilizing 3-(4, 5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT). The final results for MTT assays are quantified by spectrophotometry using a plate reader at 570 nm As-prepared nanodiamond has been found to be stable , biocompatible and useful for biosensing applications. A linear response of the enzyme based electrode to glucose concentration is also observed from 1-8 x mM before saturation condition close to 10mM has been observed.
We performed a retrospective cohort study (n = 129) to assess whether residents of extended care facilities who were initially colonized or infected with the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain USA300 were less likely to have prolonged colonization than were residents colonized or infected with other MRSA strains. We found no difference in prolonged colonization (adjusted odds ratio, 1.1 [95% confidence interval, 0.5–2.4]).
Understanding local perceptions of disease causation could help public health officials improve strategies to prevent bloody diarrhoea. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh to elicit community beliefs about the causes of and prevention strategies for bloody diarrhoea. Between March and June 2003, we interviewed 541 randomly selected respondents. Overall, 507 (93%) respondents perceived that a vaccine could prevent bloody diarrhoea. If a vaccine provided lifetime protection, 445 (83%) respondents stated that they would opt to get the vaccine and would pay a median of $0·05 (range U.S.$0·01–0·15) for it, equivalent to <1% of their median weekly income. There was almost universal perception that an effective vaccine to prevent bloody diarrhoea was highly beneficial and acceptable. While respondents valued a vaccine for prevention of bloody diarrhoea, they were only willing to pay minimally for it. Therefore, achieving a high rate of Shigella vaccine coverage may require subsidy of vaccine purchase.
Five new species of Cryptothecia: C. alboglauca, C. bengalensis, C. farinosa, C. multipunctata and C. verruculifera, and two new species of Herpothallon: H. granulosum and H. isidiatum are described from India. Herpothallon australasicum (Elix) Elix & G. Thor and H. granulare (Sipman) Aptroot & Lücking are also reported as new records.
The anterior nares are the most sensitive single site for detecting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization. Colonization patterns of USA300 MRSA colonization are unknown.
To assess whether residents of extended care facilities who are colonized with USA300 MRSA have different nares or skin colonization findings, compared with residents who are colonized with non-USA300 MRSA strains.
The study population included residents of 5 extended care units in 3 separate facilities who had a recent history of MRSA colonization. Specimens were obtained weekly for surveillance cultures from the anterior nares, perineum, axilla, and skin breakdown (if present) for 3 weeks. MRSA isolates were categorized as USA300 MRSA or non-USA300 MRSA.
Of the 193 residents who tested positive for MRSA, 165 were colonized in the anterior nares, and 119 were colonized on their skin. Eighty-four percent of USA300 MRSA-colonized residents had anterior nares colonization, compared with 86% of residents colonized with non-USA300 MRSA (P = .80). Sixty-six percent of USA300 MRSA–colonized residents were colonized on the skin, compared with 59% of residents colonized with non-USA300 MRSA (P = .30).
Colonization patterns of USA300 MRSA and non-USA300 MRSA are similar in residents of extended care facilities. Anterior nares cultures will detect most—but not all—people who are colonized with MRSA, regardless of whether it is USA300 or non-USA300 MRSA.
During 22–24 August 2004, an outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection affected air travellers who departed from Hawaii. Forty-seven passengers with culture-confirmed shigellosis and 116 probable cases who travelled on 12 flights dispersed to Japan, Australia, 22 US states, and American Samoa. All flights were served by one caterer. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of all 29 S. sonnei isolates yielded patterns that matched within one band. Food histories and menu reviews identified raw carrot served onboard as the likely vehicle of infection. Attack rates for diarrhoea on three surveyed flights with confirmed cases were 54% (110/204), 32% (20/63), and 12% (8/67). A total of 2700 meals were served on flights with confirmed cases; using attack rates observed on surveyed flights, we estimated that 300–1500 passengers were infected. This outbreak illustrates the risk of rapid, global spread of illness from a point-source at a major airline hub.
Enterographa bengalensis, a new species is described from the mangrove reserve – Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve, West Bengal, India. It is characterized by the convergent punctiform to lirelliform ascomata, 12–15(–17) septate fusiform ascospores and the presence of psoromic acid. In addition, three species of the genus viz. E. anguinella (Nyl.) Redinger, E. divergens (Müll. Arg.) Redinger and E. multiseptata R. Sant. are also reported for the first time from India.
We have carried out a multi-wavelength study of the star forming region NGC 1893 to make a comprehensive exploration of the effects of massive stars on low mass star formation. Using deep optical U BV RI broad band, Hα narrow band photometry and slit-less spectroscopy along with archival data from the surveys such as 2MASS, MSX, IRAS and NVSS, we have studied the region to understand the star formation scenario in the region.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of profuse watery diarrhoea in the developing world, often leading to severe dehydration or death. We found only 15 population-based studies in low and medium human development index (HDI) countries from 1984 to 2005 that evaluate disease incidence. Reported incidence ranged from 39 to 4460 infections/1000 persons per year. The peak incidence of ETEC appeared to occur between ages 6 and 18 months. A median of 14% (range 2–36%) of diarrhoeal specimens were positive for ETEC in 19 facility- and population-based studies conducted in all age groups and 13% (range 3–39%) in 51 studies conducted in children only. Heat-labile toxin (LT)-ETEC is thought to be less likely to cause disease than heat-stable toxin (ST)-ETEC or LT/ST-ETEC. Because population-based studies involve enhanced clinical management of patients and facility-based studies include only the most severe illnesses, reliable data on complications and mortality from ETEC infections was unavailable. To reduce gaps in the current understanding of ETEC incidence, complications and mortality, large population-based studies combined with facility-based studies covering a majority of the corresponding population are needed, especially in low-HDI countries. Moreover, a standard molecular definition of ETEC infection is needed to be able to compare results across study sites.
The global incidence of Shigella infection has been estimated at 80–165 million episodes annually, with 99% of episodes occurring in the developing world. To identify contemporary gaps in the understanding of the global epidemiology of shigellosis, we conducted a review of the English-language scientific literature from 1984 to 2005, restricting the search to low and medium human development countries. Our review yielded 11 population-based studies of Shigella burden from seven countries. No population-based studies have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa or in low human development countries. In studies done in all age groups, Shigella incidence varied from 0·6 to 107 episodes/1000 person-years. S. flexneri was the most commonly detected subgroup in the majority of studies. Case-fatality rates ranged from 0% to 2·6% in population-based studies and from 0% to 21% in facility-based studies. This review highlights the large gaps in data on the burden of Shigella infections for low human development index countries and, more specifically, for sub-Saharan Africa.
There are only 10 contemporary, population-based studies of typhoid fever that
evaluate disease incidence using blood culture for confirmation of cases.
Reported incidence ranged from 13 to 976/100 000 persons per year.
These studies are likely to have been done preferentially in high- incidence
sites which makes generalization of data difficult. Only five of these studies
reported mortality. Of these the median (range) mortality
(0–1·8%). Since study
conditions usually involved enhanced clinical management of patients and the
studies were not designed to evaluate mortality as an outcome, their usefulness
for generalizing case-fatality rates is uncertain. No contemporary
population-based studies reported rates of complications. Hospital-based typhoid
fever studies reported median (range) complication rates
intestinal perforation and case-fatality rates of 2·0%
(0–14·8%). Rates of
complications other than intestinal perforation were not reported in
contemporary hospital-based studies. Hospital-based studies capture information
on the most severe illnesses among persons who have access to health-care
services limiting their generalizability. Only two studies have informed the
current understanding of typhoid fever age distribution curves. Extrapolation
from population-based studies suggests that most typhoid fever occurs among
young children in Asia. To reduce gaps in the current understanding of typhoid
fever incidence, complications, and case-fatality rate, large population-based
studies using blood culture confirmation of cases are needed in representative
sites, especially in low and medium human development index countries outside
A new species of lichen, Graphis sundarbanensis, is described from India. It is characterized by ascomata with a pruinose wide-open disc, a laterally carbonized apically convergent exciple and 6–8 locular halonate ascospores.
Highly conducting and transparent Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films, which are oriented along c-axis and have wurtzite structure, were grown on quartz substrate at low temperature by pulsed laser deposition. The techniques of x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical transmission spectroscopy (OTS), electrical resistivity, and Hall Effect were used to study the effect of growth temperature and oxygen pressure on the structural, electrical transport, and optical properties of these films. The optical transparency in all the films is high and does not change much with oxygen pressure and growth temperature. However, electrical parameters such as resistivity, carrier concentration, and mobility strongly depend on both oxygen pressure and growth temperature. The temperature dependence resistivity measurement indicates semiconducting behavior of all the films. A detailed study indicates that the films which are highly conducting and transparent correspond to an optimum temperature of 200 °C and an oxygen pressure of 5 × 10−7 bar. Higher transmittance of the AZO films compared with pure ZnO and ITO and comparable mobility make us to suggest that Al-doped ZnO is an excellent material for optoelectronic applications.