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Recent spectropolarimetric surveys of bright, hot stars have found that ~10% of OB-type stars contain strong (mostly dipolar) surface magnetic fields (~kG). The prominent paradigm describing the interaction between the stellar winds and the surface magnetic field is the magnetically confined wind shock (MCWS) model. In this model, the stellar wind plasma is forced to move along the closed field loops of the magnetic field, colliding at the magnetic equator, and creating a shock. As the shocked material cools radiatively it will emit X-rays. Therefore, X-ray spectroscopy is a key tool in detecting and characterizing the hot wind material confined by the magnetic fields of these stars. Some B-type stars are found to have very short rotational periods. The effects of the rapid rotation on the X-ray production within the magnetosphere have yet to be explored in detail. The added centrifugal force due to rapid rotation is predicted to cause faster wind outflows along the field lines, leading to higher shock temperatures and harder X-rays. However, this is not observed in all rapidly rotating magnetic B-type stars. In order to address this from a theoretical point of view, we use the X-ray Analytical Dynamical Magnetosphere (XADM) model, originally developed for slow rotators, with an implementation of new rapid rotational physics. Using X-ray spectroscopy from ESA’s XMM-Newton space telescope, we observed 5 rapidly rotating B-types stars to add to the previous list of observations. Comparing the observed X-ray luminosity and hardness ratio to that predicted by the XADM allows us to determine the role the added centrifugal force plays in the magnetospheric X-ray emission of these stars.
Large magnetometric surveys have contributed to the detection of an increasing number of magnetic massive stars, and to the recognition of a population of magnetic massive stellar objects with distinct properties. Among these, NGC 1624-2 possesses the largest magnetic field of any O-type star; such a field confines the stellar wind into a circumstellar magnetosphere, which can be probed using observations at different wavelength regimes. Recent optical and X-ray observations suggest that NGC 1624-2’s magnetosphere is much larger than that of any other magnetic O star. By modeling the variations of UV resonance lines, we can constrain its velocity structure. Furthermore, recent spectropolarimetric observations raise the possibility of a more complex field topology than previously expected. Putting all of these multi-wavelength constraints together will allow us to paint a consistent picture of NGC 1624-2 and its surprising behavior, giving us valuable insight into the very nature of massive star magnetospheres.
The evolution of rotational velocity and magnetic activity with age follows approximately a t−1/2 relation, the famous Skumanich law. Using a large sample of about 80 solar twins with precise ages, we show departures from this law. We found a steep drop in rotational velocity and activity in the first 2-3 Gyr and afterwards there seems to be a shallow decrease. Our inferred rotational periods suggest that the Sun will continue to slow down, validating thus the use of gyrochronology beyond solar age. The Sun displays normal rotational velocity and activity when compared to solar twins of solar age. We also show that stars with exceedingly high stellar activity for their age are spectroscopic binaries that also exhibit enhanced rotational velocities and chemical signatures of mass transfer.
Among the solar proxies, κ1 Cet, stands out as potentially having a mass very close to solar and a young age. We report magnetic field measurements and planetary habitability consequences around this star, a proxy of the young Sun when life arose on Earth. Magnetic strength was determined from spectropolarimetric observations and we reconstruct the large-scale surface magnetic field to derive the magnetic environment, stellar winds, and particle flux permeating the interplanetary medium around κ1 Cet. Our results show a closer magnetosphere and mass-loss rate 50 times larger than the current solar wind mass-loss rate when Life arose on Earth, resulting in a larger interaction via space weather disturbances between the stellar wind and a hypothetical young-Earth analogue, potentially affecting the habitability. Interaction of the wind from the young Sun with the planetary ancient magnetic field may have affected the young Earth and its life conditions.
The purpose of this paper is to explore a resolution for the Faint Young Sun Paradox that has been mostly rejected by the community, namely the possibility of a somewhat more massive young Sun with a large mass loss rate sustained for two to three billion years. This would make the young Sun bright enough to keep both the terrestrial and Martian oceans from freezing, and thus resolve the paradox. It is found that a large and sustained mass loss is consistent with the well observed spin-down rate of Sun-like stars, and indeed may be required for it. It is concluded that a more massive young Sun must be considered a plausible hypothesis.
Much can be learned from terrestrial planets that appear to have had the potential to be habitable, but failed to realize that potential. Mars shows evidence of a once hospitable surface environment. The reasons for its current state, and in particular its thin atmosphere and dry surface, are of great interest for what they can tell us about habitable zone planet outcomes. A main goal of the MAVEN mission is to observe Mars’ atmosphere responses to solar and space weather influences, and in particular atmosphere escape related to space weather ‘storms’ caused by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Numerical experiments with a data-validated MHD model suggest how the effects of an observed moderately strong ICME compare to what happens during a more extreme event. The results suggest the kinds of solar and space weather conditions that can have evolutionary importance at a planet like Mars.
Earth is the only planet known to harbor life, therefore we may speculate on how the nature of the Sun-Earth interaction is relevant to life on Earth, and how the behavior of other stars may influence the development of life on their planetary systems. We study the long-term variability of a sample of five solar analog stars using composite chromospheric activity records up to 50 years in length and synoptic visible-band photometry about 20 years long. This sample covers a large range of stellar ages which we use to represent the evolution in activity for solar mass stars. We find that young, fast rotators have an amplitude of variability many times that of the solar cycle, while old, slow rotators have very little variability. We discuss the possible impacts of this variability on young Earth and exoplanet climates.
The so-called Carrington Event on September 1, 1859, is clearly the solar outburst that brought the realization to the inhabitants of Earth that weather existed in space, and that space weather was important to the rapidly developing technological infrastructure on Earth. It is important to understand not only how space weather affects our technological systems, but like the case of atmospheric weather, the possible intensity of such weather, the frequency of extreme events, and how to predict them. This paper reviews what we know about one class of extreme space weather events, the superfast arrival events, how best to compare them given our limited diagnostics in past events and even at the current time, and suggests a direction for progress in this field.
We present a 3D magnetohydrodynamic study of the effect that stellar and planetary magnetic fields have on the calculated Lyα absorption during the planetary transit, employing parameters that resemble the exoplanet HD209458b. We assume a dipolar magnetic field for both the star and the planet, and use the Parker solution to initialize the stellar wind. We also consider the radiative processes and the radiation pressure.
We use the numerical MHD code Guacho to run several models varying the values of the planetary and stellar magnetic moments within the range reported in the literature.
We found that the presence of magnetic fields influences the escaping neutral planetary material spreading the absorption Lyα line for large stellar magnetic fields.
Les approches centrées sur l’autorégulation ainsi que sur l’acceptation des émotions et des sensations désagréables inspirées des programme MBSR et MBCT, représentent une voie intéressante dans la prise en charge des troubles du comportement alimentaire dans lesquels le contrôle et l’évitement sont au premier plan. Ces programmes permettent de travailler les aspects obsessionnels (comme les ruminations) et compulsifs (sur l’alimentation, la réactivité avec perte de contrôle) associés à ces troubles alimentaires. La clinique des maladies mentales et de l’encéphale (CMME), hôpital Sainte-Anne a mis en place un protocole « MBCT Boulimie » en huit séances. Le programme MBCT a été modifié, notamment au niveau des outils cognitifs et de la durée des pratiques de méditation pour des patients présentant un TCA. La recherche s’est réalisée sur vingt-quatre sujets de l’hôpital de jour de la CMME et avait pour objet d’évaluer l’impact du programme MBCT dans une population de sujets souffrant de boulimie et de Binge Eating Disorder.
BMI, EDI-2, EAT, BDI-13, BITE, STAI Ya/Yb, le Ruminative Response Scale for Eating Disorder (RRSED), l’Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), le Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), le Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), le Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS), le Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), l’Impulsive Behavior Scale : Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance, and Sensation Seeking (UPPS), le Cambridge Exeter Repetitive Thinking Scale (CERTS) et le Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Nous présenterons les résultats préliminaires de cette recherche ainsi que le projet de suite de ce travail de recherche clinique.
The classical problem of foam film rupture dynamics has been investigated when the film interfaces exhibit very high rigidity due to the presence of specific surfactants. Two new features are reported. First, a strong deviation from the well-known Taylor–Culick law is observed. Second, crack-like patterns can be visualized in the film; these patterns are shown to appear at a well-defined film shrinkage. The key role of surface-active material on these features is quantitatively investigated, pointing to the importance of surface elasticity to describe these fast dynamical processes and thus providing an alternative tool to characterize surface elasticity in conditions extremely far from equilibrium. The origin of the cracks and their consequences on film rupturing dynamics are also discussed.
An extremely weak circularly-polarized signature was recently detected in the spectral lines of the Am star Sirius A. With a prominent positive lobe, the shape of the phase-averaged Stokes V line profile is atypical of stellar Zeeman signatures, casting doubts on its magnetic origin. We report here on ultra-deep spectropolarimetric observations of two more bright Am stars: β Uma and θ Leo. Stokes V line signatures are detected in both objects, with a shape and amplitude similar to the one observed on Sirius A. We demonstrate that the amplitude of the Stokes V line profiles depend on various line parameters (Landé factor, wavelength, depth) as expected from a Zeeman signature, confirming that extremely weak magnetic fields are likely present in a large fraction of Am stars. We suggest that the strong asymmetry of the polarized signatures, systematically observed so far in Am stars and never reported in strongly magnetic Ap stars, bears unique information about the structure and dynamics of the thin surface convective shell of Am stars.
We have obtained high-quality magnetic field measurements of 19 sharp-lined B-type stars with precisely-measured N/C abundance ratios (Nieva & Przybilla 2012). Our primary goal is to test the idea (Meynet et al. 2011) that a magnetic field may explain extra drag (through the wind) on the surface rotation, thus producing more internal shear and mixing, and thus could provide an explanation for the appearance of slowly rotating N-rich main sequence B stars.
Des données nombreuses mais contradictoires existent à l’heure actuelle sur l’implication du récepteur 2A à la sérotonine (5-HT2AR), codé par le gène HTR2A, dans le trouble dépressif majeur unipolaire [1,3]. Dans notre étude, nous combinons des données cliniques et précliniques pour déterminer l’impact d’une diminution de la transmission sérotoninergique dépendante du 5-HT2AR sur le développement et les caractéristiques des épisodes dépressifs caractérisés. Deux polymorphismes du gène HTR2A (His452Tyr et 102C/T), dont certains allèles entraîneraient une baisse de l’activité fonctionnelle du 5-HT2AR , ont été étudiés sur une population de 485 patients caucasiens présentant un épisode dépressif majeur (EDM) dans le cadre d’un trouble dépressif majeur unipolaire. D’autre part, une étude préclinique comparant l’effet d’une administration chronique de corticostérone sur l’apparition d’un phénotype de type dépressif  chez des souris mutées pour le Htr2a (Htr2a-/-) et des souris sauvages a été réalisée. Chez les patients, le variant TT du polymorphisme His452Tyr, particulièrement peu fréquent, a été détecté chez deux patients souffrant d’un EDM de type mélancolique. D’autre part, l’allèle C du polymorphisme 102C/T est plus fréquemment retrouvé chez les patients déprimés (p = 0,019) que dans la population générale et les génotypes CC et CT sont associés à des EDM plus sévères à l’HAMD-17 (p = 0,008). D’autre part, les tests comportementaux effectués chez les souris Htr2a-/- montrent que ces dernières développent un phénotype de type dépressif plus marqué par rapport aux souris sauvages (p < 0,01) en réponse à l’administration chronique de corticostérone. Cette étude translationnelle suggère qu’une diminution de la transmission sérotoninergique au niveau du 5-HT2AR pourrait favoriser le développement d’un trouble dépressif majeur unipolaire et entraîner une sévérité plus importante des épisodes dépressifs caractérisés.
We present the first magnetic map of the late-type giant 37 Com. The Least Squares Deconvolution (LSD) method and Zeeman Doppler Imaging (ZDI) inversion technique were applied. The chromospheric activity indicators Hα, S-index, Ca ii IRT and the radial velocity were also measured. The evolutionary status of the star has been studied on the basis of state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary models and chemical abundance analysis. 37 Com appears to be in the core Helium-burning phase.
The structure and dynamics of young stellar object (YSO) accretion shocks depend strongly on the local magnetic field strength and configuration, as well as on the radiative transfer effects responsible for the energy losses. We present the first 3D YSO shock simulations of the interior of the stream, assuming a uniform background magnetic field, a clumpy infalling gas, and an acoustic energy flux flowing at the base of the chromosphere. We study the dynamical evolution and the post-shock structure as a function of the plasma-beta (thermal pressure over magnetic pressure). We find that a strong magnetic field (~hundreds of Gauss) leads to the formation of fibrils in the shocked gas due to the plasma confinement within flux tubes. The corresponding emission is smooth and fully distinguishable from the case of a weak magnetic field (~tenths of Gauss) where the hot slab demonstrates chaotic motion and oscillates periodically.
κ1 Cet (HD 20630, HIP 15457, d = 9.16 pc, V = 4.84) is a dwarf star approximately 30 light-years away in the equatorial constellation of Cetus. Among the solar proxies studied in the Sun in Time, κ1 Cet stands out as potentially having a mass very close to solar and a young age. On this study, we monitored the magnetic field and the chromospheric activity from the Ca II H & K lines of κ1 Cet. We used the technique of Least-Square-Deconvolution (LSD, Donati et al. 1997) by simultaneously extracting the information contained in all 8,000 photospheric lines of the echelogram (for a linelist matching an atmospheric model of spectral type K1). To reconstruct a reliable magnetic map and characterize the surface differential rotation of κ1 Cet we used 14 exposures spread over 2 months, in order to cover at least two rotational cycles (Prot ~9.2 days). The Least Square deconvolution (LSD) technique was applied to detect the Zeeman signature of the magnetic field in each of our 14 observations and to measure its longitudinal component. In order to reconstruct the magnetic field geometry of κ1 Cet, we applied the Zeeman Doppler Imaging (ZDI) inversion method. ZDI revealed a structure in the radial magnetic field consisting of a polar magnetic spot. On this study, we present the fisrt look results of a high-resolution spectropolarimetric campaign to characterize the activity and the magnetic fields of this young solar proxy.
A subpopulation (~10%) of hot, luminous, massive stars have been revealed through spectropolarimetry to harbor strong (hundreds to tens of thousand Gauss), steady, large-scale (often significantly dipolar) magnetic fields. This review focuses on the role of such fields in channeling and trapping the radiatively driven wind of massive stars, including both in the strongly perturbed outflow from open field regions, and the wind-fed “magnetospheres” that develop from closed magnetic loops. For B-type stars with weak winds and moderately fast rotation, one finds “centrifugal magnetospheres”, in which rotational support allows magnetically trapped wind to accumulate to a large density, with quite distinctive observational signatures, e.g. in Balmer line emission. In contrast, more luminous O-type stars have generally been spun down by magnetic braking from angular momentum loss in their much stronger winds. The lack of centrifugal support means their closed loops form a “dynamical magnetosphere”, with trapped material falling back to the star on a dynamical timescale; nonetheless, the much stronger wind feeding leads to a circumstellar density that is still high enough to give substantial Balmer emission. Overall, this review describes MHD simulations and semi-analytic dynamical methods for modeling the magnetospheres, the magnetically channeled wind outflows, and the associated spin-down of these magnetic massive stars.
The surface rotation rates of young solar-type stars decrease rapidly with age from the end of the pre-main sequence though the early main sequence. This suggests that there is also an important change in the dynamos operating in these stars, which should be observable in their surface magnetic fields. Here we present early results in a study aimed at observing the evolution of these magnetic fields through this critical time period. We are observing stars in open clusters and stellar associations to provide precise ages, and using Zeeman Doppler Imaging to characterize the complex magnetic fields. Presented here are results for six stars, three in the in the β Pic association (~10 Myr old) and three in the AB Dor association (~100 Myr old).
Although barotropic matter does not constitute a realistic model for magnetic stars on short timescales, it would be interesting to confirm a recent conjecture that states that magnetized stars with a barotropic equation of state would be dynamically unstable (Reisenegger 2009). In this work we construct a set of barotropic equilibria, which can eventually be tested using a stability criterion. A general description of the ideal MHD equations governing these equilibria is summarized, allowing for both poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components. A new finite-difference numerical code is developed in order to solve the so-called Grad-Shafranov equation describing the equilibrium of these configurations, and some properties of the equilibria obtained are briefly discussed.