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A medium-length ice core was drilled at the ice divide on the Lomonosovfonna plateau (1230 m a.s.l.), Svalbard, in May 1997. As part of this project, temperature measurements were performed in the 120m deep borehole. At this site the ice thickness based on radar measurements is 126.5 m and the mean annual accumulation rate is 380 kg m–3. the measurements over the 15–120m depth interval show a nearly isothermal profile with a mean value of –2.8˚C and a standard deviation of 0.2˚C. the measurements reveal a temperature minimum at approximately 70m depth and a temperature gradient of 0.011 ±0.004˚Cm–1 near the bottom. the temperature minimum and relatively low temperature gradient cannot be explained in terms of a steady-state climate. Numerical calculations with a simple one-dimensional diffusion–advection model show that the temperature increased at a maximum rate of 0.02–0.025Ka–1 over the last 100 years, the total temperature increase amounting to 2.0–3.0K. Forcing the model with the observed record at Svalbard airport revealed that in the 19th century the surface temperature was at most 2.5 K lower, and that the instrumental observations started during a period with temperatures comparable to the end of the 19th century. the data are of particular interest for historical simulations since often no other temperature data are available in polar areas.
Seasonal influenza can cause significant morbidity in pregnant women. Much of the existing epidemiological evidence on influenza during pregnancy has focused on the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic. To measure the epidemiological characteristics of seasonal influenza infection among pregnant women and the impact on infant health, a cohort of 86 779 pregnancies during the influenza season (2012–2014) was established using probabilistic linkage of notifiable infectious disease, hospital admission, and birth information. A total of 192 laboratory-confirmed influenza infections were identified (2·2 per 1000 pregnancies), 14·6% of which were admitted to hospital. There was no difference in the proportion of infections admitted to hospital by trimester or subtype of infection. Influenza B infections were more likely to occur in second trimester compared with influenza A/H3N2 and influenza A/H1N1 infections (41·3%, 23·6%, and 33·3%, respectively), and on average, infants born to women with influenza B during pregnancy had 4·0% (95% CI 0·3–7·6%) lower birth weight relative to optimal compared with infants born to uninfected women (P = 0·03). Results from this linked population-based study suggest that there are differences in maternal infection by virus type and subtype and support the provision of seasonal influenza vaccine to pregnant women.
Introduction: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common problem and until now, ED physicians don’t have any tool to predict when the patient will return to work. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a clinical decision rule to identify the ED patients who are at risk of non-return to work or to school three months after a mTBI. Methods: Patients were recruiting in five Level I and II Trauma Centers ED in the province of Québec. All patients were referred for a systematic telephone follow-up after three months. Information about their return to work/school, partial or complete, was collected. Log binomial regression was used to develop a predictive model and the validation of this model was performed on a different prospective cohort. Results: 13,7% of the patients did not return to work/school at three months. The final model was derived from a prospective cohort of 398 patients and included three risk factors: motor vehicle accident (2 points), loss of consciousness (1 point) and headache during the emergency department assessment (1 point). With a one-point threshold, this model has a sensitivity of 97% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 98%. However, the specificity is only 23% and the positive predictive value (PPV) is 17%. The area under the curve is 0.786. Validation of the model was performed with a new prospective cohort of 517 patients, and demonstrated a sensitivity of 86% and a NPV of 91%. Conclusion: Although this model is not very specific, its high sensitivity and NPV indicate to the clinician that mTBI patients who don’t have any of the three criteria are at low risk of prolonged work stoppage after their trauma.
Introduction: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a major cause of morbidity but there are no validated tools to help clinicians predict post-concussion symptoms. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the prognostic value of S-100B protein to predict post-concussion symptoms following a mTBI in adults. Methods: The protocol of this systematic review was registered with the PROSPERO database (CRD42016032578). A search strategy was performed on seven databases (CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, PyscBITE, PsycINFO) from their inception to October 2016. Studies evaluating the association between S-100B protein level and post-concussion symptoms assessed at least seven days after the mTBI were eligible. Individual patient data were requested. Studies eligibility assessment, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed independently by two researchers. Analyses were done following the meta-analysis using individual participant data or summary aggregate data guidelines from the Cochrane Methodology Review Group. Results: Outcomes were dichotomised as persistent (≥3 months) or early (≥7 days <3 months). Our search strategy yielded 23,298 citations of which 29 studies presenting between seven and 223 patients (n=2505) were included. Post-concussion syndrome (PCS) (16 studies), neuropsychological symptoms (9 studies) and health-related quality of life (4 studies) were the most frequently presented outcomes. The S-100B protein serum level of patients with no PCS was similar to that of patients experiencing persistent PCS (mean difference 0.00 [-0.05, 0.04]) or early PCS (mean difference 0.03 [-0.02, 0.08]). The odds of having persistent PCS (OR 0.56 (95% CI: 0.29-1.10) or early PCS (OR 1.67 (95% CI: 0.98-2.85) in patients with an elevated S-100B protein serum level was not significantly different from that of patients with normal values. No meta-analysis was performed for other outcomes than PCS due to heterogeneity and small samples. Studies’ overall risk of bias was considered moderate. Conclusion: Results suggest that the prognostic value of S-100B protein serum level to predict persistent and early post-concussion symptoms is limited. Variability in injury to S-100B protein sample time and outcomes assessed could potentially explain the lack of association and needs further evaluation.
Introduction: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is an understudied worldwide health problem and a socio-economic burden that remains a major cause of morbidity. However, there is no prognostication tool to help clinicians predict the occurrence of post-concussion symptoms. This systematic review aimed to determine the prognostic value of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) to predict post-concussion symptoms following a mTBI in adults. Methods: The protocol of this systematic review was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) database (registration number CRD42016033683). Seven databases (CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycBITE, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge/Biosis) were searched for cohort studies evaluating the association between NSE levels and post-concussion symptoms assessed at least seven days after the mild TBI. Grey literature was also screened using databases on dissertations and theses as well as abstracts from relevant congresses. Two researchers independently screened studies for inclusion, extracted data, and appraised their quality using the Quality in Prognostic Studies (QUIPS) tool from the Cochrane Collaboration Group. Results: Our search strategy yielded a total of 23,298 citations from which eight cohorts presented in 10 studies were included. Studies included between 45 and 141 patients (total=608 patients). The most frequently assessed outcomes were post-concussion syndrome (PCS) (13 assessments), neuropsychological disorders (10 assessments), return to work or sick leave (2 assessments) and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) (2 assessments). No association was found between an elevated NSE serum level and the occurrence of PCS. Of the 33 outcomes assessments performed, only three showed an association between a higher level of serum NSE and a post-concussion symptom (alteration of at least three cognitive domains at 2 weeks, standardised physician assessment at 6 weeks and headache at 6 months following a mild TBI). Included studies’ overall risk of bias was considered moderate. Conclusion: Results of this systematic review conclude that based on current levels of evidence, serum NSE levels alone do not provide prognostic information on persistent or early post-concussion symptoms after a mTBI.
We use the TGAS proper motions and parallaxes as well as published and new radial velocities to study the dynamics of nearby moving groups. In particular we try to determine their age using backtracing of the individual members to a common origin. We find that the current data, probably the radial velocities, do not allow to reach a successful conclusion.
The Universe is permeated by hot, turbulent, magnetized plasmas. Turbulent plasma is a major constituent of active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants, the intergalactic and interstellar medium, the solar corona, the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetosphere, just to mention a few examples. Energy dissipation of turbulent fluctuations plays a key role in plasma heating and energization, yet we still do not understand the underlying physical mechanisms involved. THOR is a mission designed to answer the questions of how turbulent plasma is heated and particles accelerated, how the dissipated energy is partitioned and how dissipation operates in different regimes of turbulence. THOR is a single-spacecraft mission with an orbit tuned to maximize data return from regions in near-Earth space – magnetosheath, shock, foreshock and pristine solar wind – featuring different kinds of turbulence. Here we summarize the THOR proposal submitted on 15 January 2015 to the ‘Call for a Medium-size mission opportunity in ESAs Science Programme for a launch in 2025 (M4)’. THOR has been selected by European Space Agency (ESA) for the study phase.
Background: Planning for neurology training necessitated a reflection on the experience of graduates. We explored practice characteristics, and training experience of recent graduates. Methods: Graduates from 2010-2014 completed a survey. Results: Response rate was 37% of 211. 56% were female. 91% were adult neurologists. 65% practiced in an outpatient setting. 63% worked in academics. 85% completed subspecialty training (median 1 year). 36% work 3 days a week or less. 82% took general call (median 1 night weekly). Role preparation was considered very good or excellent for most; however poor or fair ratings were 17% in advocacy and 8% in leadership. Training feedback was at least “good” for 87%. Burnout a few times a week or more was noted by 5% (6% during residency, particularly PGY1 and 5). 64% felt overly burdened by paperwork. Although most felt training was adequate, it was poor or fair at preparing for practice management (85%) and personal balance (55%). Most conditions were under-observed in training environment. Many noted a need for more independent practice development and community neurology. Conclusions: Although our training was found to be very good, some identified needs included advocacy training, and more training in general neurology in the longitudinal outpatient/community settings.
Since July 1996, 815 new names on features on bodies in the Solar System have been assigned by the WGPSN and approved at the IAU General Assembly in Kyoto in 1997. Of these names, 666 were for Venus, 17 for Mars, 3 for the Moon, 125 for the Galilean satellites, 3 for the Uranian satellite Miranda, and 1 for the minor planet Ida. 71 additional names mostly on Venus have been selected and have been given or are awaiting provisional approval by the IAU Executive Committee (EC). These names are up for final approval at the next IAU General Assembly.
The Magellanic System represents one of the best places to study the formation and evolution of galaxies. Photometric surveys of various depths, areas and wavelengths have had a significant impact on our understanding of the system; however, a complete picture is still lacking. VMC (the VISTA near-infrared YJKs survey of the Magellanic System) will provide new data to derive the spatially resolved star formation history and to construct a three-dimensional map of the system. These data combined with those from other ongoing and planned surveys will give us an absolutely unique view of the system opening up the doors to truly new science!
Over the past 25 years, the Adult Netherlands Twin Register (ANTR) has collected a wealth of information on physical and mental health, lifestyle, and personality in adolescents and adults. This article provides an overview of the sources of information available, the main research findings, and an outlook for the future. Between 1991 and 2012, longitudinal surveys were completed by twins, their parents, siblings, spouses, and offspring. Data are available for 33,957 participants, with most individuals having completed two or more surveys. Smaller projects provided in-depth phenotyping, including measurements of the autonomic nervous system, neurocognitive function, and brain imaging. For 46% of the ANTR participants, DNA samples are available and whole genome scans have been obtained in more than 11,000 individuals. These data have resulted in numerous studies on heritability, gene x environment interactions, and causality, as well as gene finding studies. In the future, these studies will continue with collection of additional phenotypes, such as metabolomic and telomere length data, and detailed genetic information provided by DNA and RNA sequencing. Record linkage to national registers will allow the study of morbidity and mortality, thus providing insight into the development of health, lifestyle, and behavior across the lifespan.
Populations of many frogs have declined alarmingly in recent years, placing nearly one third of the > 6,000 species under threat of extinction. Declines have been attributed largely to habitat loss, environmental degradation and/or infectious diseases such as chytridiomycosis. Many frogs undergo dramatic natural population fluctuations such that long-term data are required to determine population trends without undue influence of stochastic factors. We present long-term quantitative data (individuals encountered per person hour of searching) for four monotypic frog genera endemic to an Afromontane region of exceptional importance but growing conservation concern: one endemic to the Ethiopian highlands (Spinophrynoides osgoodi) and three endemic to the Bale Mountains (Altiphrynoides malcolmi, Balebreviceps hillmani, Ericabatrachus baleensis), collected during 15 field trips to the Bale Mountains between 1971 and 2009. Only a single confirmed sighting of S. osgoodi has been made since 1995. The other three species have also declined, at least locally. E. baleensis appears to have been extirpated at its type locality and at the same site B. hillmani has declined. These declines are in association with substantial habitat degradation caused by a growing human population. Chytrid fungus has been found on several frog species in Bale, although no dead or moribund frogs have been encountered. These results expose an urgent need for more amphibian surveys in the Bale Mountains. Additionally, we argue that detrimental human exploitation must be halted immediately in at least some parts of the Harenna Forest if a conservation crisis is to be averted.
3D integration promises to reduce system form factor through direct stacking and interconnection of chips made using different technologies, into a single system. In our case, these interconnects consist of small and deep through wafer vias in the form of Cu nails. One of the enabling technologies to achieve 3D stacks, is thinning on carrier. It involves backside grinding and CMP of patterned wafers down to 20 micron, while temporarily glued to a carrier.
Success of grinding on carrier is found to strongly depend on temporary glue layer properties and bonding quality. Voids in between device wafer and carrier of various origins were observed to cause thin wafer delamination and catastrophic breakage when grinding down below 50 micron. By improvements in the bonding process, we eventually enabled uniform bonding, compatible with standard grinding and CMP techniques.
CMP both removes grinding-induced damage and exposes the Cu nails at the thin wafer backside. The developed CMP consists of 2 steps which are optimized to reduce Cu smearing and within-die uniformity. Both are found to correlate with the local Cu nail density variations.
IMEC is focusing its 3D-integration technology developments in 3 distinct directions: 3D-System-in-a-Package (3D-SiP), 3D-Wafer-Level-Packaging (3D-WLP) and 3D-Stacked-IC (3D-SiC). First, the background of these separate approaches will be given. Next the materials and technologies involved, the typical characteristics and the ongoing developments will be discussed. Finally, the roadmap for the 3D-integration in IMEC will be presented.
We investigated the induced magnetic behaviour of the Ag of Fe/Ag multilayers with low temperature nuclear orientation. The experiments show induced magnetic moments in all samples. Furthermore, multilayers with 2ML and 4ML of Ag, these moments do not lie in the plane of the multilayer at low external magnetic fields.
The next ESA spatial mission planned to study the Sun, Solar Orbiter (SO), necessitates very innovative EUV detectors. The commonly used silicon detectors suffer important limitations mainly in terms of UV robustness and dark current level. An alternative comes from diamond or III-nitride materials. In these materials, the radiation hardness, solar blindness and dark current are improved due to their wide bandgap. This paper presents the new developments on wide bandgap materials at the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB). We present also the LYRA instrument, the BOLD project, and the EUI instrument suite.