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Maternal perinatal depression exerts pervasive effects on the developing brain, as evidenced by electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns that differ between children of women who do and do not meet DSM or ICD diagnostic criteria. However, little research has examined if the same EEG pattern of right-frontal alpha asymmetry exists in newborns and thus originates in utero independent of postnatal influences, and if depressive symptoms are associated with this neural signature. Utilizing 125-lead EEG (n=18), this study considered clinician-rated maternal prenatal depressive symptoms in relation to newborn EEG. Maternal depressive symptomatology was associated with greater relative right-frontal alpha asymmetry during quiet sleep. These results suggest that even subclinical levels of maternal depression may influence infant brain development, and further support the role of the prenatal environment in shaping children’s future neurobehavioral trajectories.
To assess the burden of bloodstream infections (BSIs) among pediatric hematology-oncology (PHO) inpatients, to propose a comprehensive, all-BSI tracking approach, and to discuss how such an approach helps better inform within-center and across-center differences in CLABSI rate
Prospective cohort study
US multicenter, quality-improvement, BSI prevention network
PHO centers across the United States who agreed to follow a standardized central-line–maintenance care bundle and track all BSI events and central-line days every month.
Infections were categorized as CLABSI (stratified by mucosal barrier injury–related, laboratory-confirmed BSI [MBI-LCBI] versus non–MBI-LCBI) and secondary BSI, using National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definitions. Single positive blood cultures (SPBCs) with NHSN defined common commensals were also tracked.
Between 2013 and 2015, 34 PHO centers reported 1,110 BSIs. Among them, 708 (63.8%) were CLABSIs, 170 (15.3%) were secondary BSIs, and 232 (20.9%) were SPBCs. Most SPBCs (75%) occurred in patients with profound neutropenia; 22% of SPBCs were viridans group streptococci. Among the CLABSIs, 51% were MBI-LCBI. Excluding SPBCs, CLABSI rates were higher (88% vs 77%) and secondary BSI rates were lower (12% vs 23%) after the NHSN updated the definition of secondary BSI (P<.001). Preliminary analyses showed across-center differences in CLABSI versus secondary BSI and between SPBC and CLABSI versus non-CLABSI rates.
Tracking all BSIs, not just CLABSIs in PHO patients, is a patient-centered, clinically relevant approach that could help better assess across-center and within-center differences in infection rates, including CLABSI. This approach enables informed decision making by healthcare providers, payors, and the public.
Lithium sulfur (Li–S) batteries have the potential to provide higher energy storage density at lower cost than conventional lithium ion batteries. A key challenge for Li–S batteries is the loss of sulfur to the electrolyte during cycling. This loss can be mitigated by sequestering the sulfur in nanostructured carbon–sulfur composites. The nanoscale characterization of the sulfur distribution within these complex nanostructured electrodes is normally performed by electron microscopy, but sulfur sublimates and redistributes in the high-vacuum conditions of conventional electron microscopes. The resulting sublimation artifacts render characterization of sulfur in conventional electron microscopes problematic and unreliable. Here, we demonstrate two techniques, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning electron microscopy in air (airSEM), that enable the reliable characterization of sulfur across multiple length scales by suppressing sulfur sublimation. We use cryo-TEM and airSEM to examine carbon–sulfur composites synthesized for use as Li–S battery cathodes, noting several cases where the commonly employed sulfur melt infusion method is highly inefficient at infiltrating sulfur into porous carbon hosts.
Parasites can influence host population dynamics, community composition and evolution. Prediction of these effects, however, requires an understanding of the influence of ecological context on parasite distributions and the consequences of infection for host fitness. We address these issues with an amphibian – trematode (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) host–parasite system. We initially performed a field survey of trematode infection in first (snail) and second (larval green frog, Rana clamitans) intermediate hosts over 5 years across a landscape of 23 ponds in southeastern Michigan. We then combined this study with a tadpole enclosure experiment in eight ponds. We found echinostomes in all ponds during the survey, although infection levels in both snails and amphibians differed across ponds and years. Echinostome prevalence (proportion of hosts infected) in snails also changed seasonally depending on host species, and abundance (parasites per host) in tadpoles depended on host size and prevalence in snails. The enclosure experiment demonstrated that infection varied at sites within ponds, and tadpole survival was lower in enclosures with higher echinostome abundance. The observed effects enhance our ability to predict when and where host–parasite interactions will occur and the potential fitness consequences of infection, with implications for population and community dynamics, evolution and conservation.
Based on seven measured sections from Svalbard, the marine strata of the Permian Kapp Starostin Formation are arranged into seven transgressive–regressive sequences (TR1–TR7) of c. 4–5 Ma average duration, each bound by a maximum regressive surface. Facies, including heterozoan-dominated limestones, spiculitic cherts, sandstones, siltstones and shales, record deposition within inner, middle and outer shelf areas. The lowermost sequence, TR1, comprises most of the basal Vøringen Member, which records a transgression across the Gipshuken Formation following a hiatus of unknown duration. Temperate to cold, storm-dominated facies established in inner to middle shelf areas between the latest Artinskian and Kungurian. Prolonged deepening during sequences TR2 and TR3 was succeeded by a long-term shallowing-upward trend that lasted until the latest Permian (TR4–TR7). A major depocentre existed in central and western Spitsbergen while to the north, Dickson Land remained a shallow platform, leading to a shallow homoclinal ramp in NE Spitsbergen and Nordaustlandet. The Middle Permian extinction (late Capitanian) is recorded near the base of TR6 in deeper parts of the basin only; elsewhere this sequence is not recorded. Likewise the youngest sequence, TR7, extending to the upper formational contact of latest Permian age, is found only in the basin depocentre. Comparison with age-equivalent strata in the Sverdrup Basin of Canada reveals a remarkably similar depositional history, with, for example, two (third-order) sea-level cycles recorded in the Late Permian of both regions, in keeping with the global record. Sequence stratigraphy may therefore be a powerful correlative tool for onshore and offshore Permian deposits across NW Pangaea.
Fast computers enable the solution of quantum many-body problems by Monte Carlo methods. As computing power increased dramatically over the years, similarly impressive advances occurred at the level of the algorithms, so that we are now in a position to perform accurate simulations of large systems of interacting quantum spins, Bosons, and (to a lesser extent) Fermions. The purpose of this book is to present and explain the quantum Monte Carlo algorithms being used today to simulate the ground states and thermodynamic equilibrium states of quantum models defined on a lattice. Our intent is not to review all relevant algorithms – there are too many variants to do so comprehensively – but rather to focus on a core set of important algorithms, explaining what they are and how and why they work.
Our focus on lattice models, such as Heisenberg and Hubbard models, has at least two implications. The first is obviously that we are not considering models in the continuum where extensive use of quantum Monte Carlo methods traditionally has focused on producing highly accurate ab initio calculations of the ground states of nuclei, atoms, molecules, and solids. Quantum Monte Carlo algorithms for simulating the ground states of continuum and lattice models, however, are very similar. In fact, the lattice algorithms are in many cases derived from the continuum methods. With fewer degrees of freedom, lattice models are compact and insightful representations of the physics in the continuum.
The second implication is a focus on both zero and finite temperature algorithms. On a lattice, it is natural to study phase transitions. In particular, the recent dramatic advances in quantum Monte Carlo lattice methods for the simulation of quantum spin models were prompted by a need for more efficient and effective ways to study finite-temperature transitions. While quantum Monte Carlo is profitably used to study zero temperature phase transitions (quantum critical phenomena), some ground state algorithms have no finite temperature analogs and vice versa. In many respects, the lattice is where the current algorithmic action is.
The book is divided into four parts. The first part is a self-contained, more advanced than average, discussion of the Monte Carlo method, its use, and its foundations.
The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) (Schember et al. 1996 and references within) is a small spaceborne telescope specifically designed to study the evolution of starburst galaxies. This powerful astronomical instrument will be capable of detecting typical starburst galaxies at z ∼ 0.5, ultraluminous infrared galaxies beyond a z ∼ 2, and luminous protogalaxies beyond z ∼ 5. The WIRE survey, to be conducted during a four month period in 1998, will cover over 100 deg2 of high Galactic latitude sky at 25 μm and 12 μm.
The nature of the nonthermal source Sgr A∗ has been the subject of extensive debate, with evidence mounting that it is in fact a ~ 2 × 106 M⊙ black hole (e.g. Eckart & Genzel 1997). Although previous Mid-Infrared (MIR, ~5-40 μm) observations (Gezari 1992; Telesco, Davidson & Werner 1996) have estabished upper limits on the flux of a potential source at Sgr A∗, they were unable to differentiate a point source at the location of Sgr A∗ from the background. Stolovy et al. (1996) reported the first detection of a compact source coincident with Sgr A∗ to ±0.3″, which they measured to have a flux value of 25±5 mJy. The existence of this source, and a better understanding of its flux and spectral characteristics are needed. We present here confirmation of a MIR source near Sgr A∗.
We provide exact computations for the drift of random walks in dependent random environments, including k-dependent and moving average environments. We show how the drift can be characterized and evaluated using Perron–Frobenius theory. Comparing random walks in various dependent environments, we demonstrate that their drifts can exhibit interesting behavior that depends significantly on the dependency structure of the random environment.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) has consistently been linked with adverse outcomes including substance use disorders and adult sexual revictimization. Adult sexual victimization itself has been linked with psychopathology but has predominately been studied in women. The current investigation examines the impact of CM and co-occurring psychopathology on adult sexual victimization in men and women, replicating findings in three distinct samples.
We investigated the association between continuous CM factor scores and adult sexual victimization in the Childhood Trauma Study (CTS) sample (N = 2564). We also examined the unique relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual victimization while adjusting for co-occurring substance dependence and psychopathology. We replicated these analyses in two additional samples: the Comorbidity and Trauma Study (CATS; N = 1981) and the Australian Twin-Family Study of Alcohol Use Disorders (OZ-ALC; N = 1537).
Analyses revealed a significant association with CM factor scores and adult sexual victimization for both men and women across all three samples. The CSA factor score was strongly associated with adult sexual victimization after adjusting for substance dependence and psychopathology; higher odds ratios were observed in men (than women) consistently across the three samples.
A continuous measure of CSA is independently associated with adult sexual trauma risk across samples in models that included commonly associated substance dependence and psychopathology as covariates. The strength of the association between this CSA measure and adult sexual victimization is higher in magnitude for men than women, pointing to the need for further investigation of sexual victimization in male community samples.
Postprandial inflammation is an important factor for human health since chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with chronic diseases. Dairy products have a weak but significant anti-inflammatory effect on postprandial inflammation. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of a high-fat dairy meal (HFD meal), a high-fat non-dairy meal supplemented with milk (HFM meal) and a high-fat non-dairy control meal (HFC meal) on postprandial inflammatory and metabolic responses in healthy men. A cross-over study was conducted in nineteen male subjects. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, 4 and 6 h after consumption of the test meals. Plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at each time point. IL-6, TNF-α and endotoxin concentrations were assessed at baseline and endpoint (6 h). Time-dependent curves of these metabolic parameters were plotted, and the net incremental AUC were found to be significantly higher for TAG and lower for CRP after consumption of the HFM meal compared with the HFD meal; however, the HFM and HFD meals were not different from the HFC meal. Alterations in IL-6, TNF-α and endotoxin concentrations were not significantly different between the test meals. The results suggest that full-fat milk and dairy products (cheese and butter) have no significant impact on the inflammatory response to a high-fat meal.
Many complex systems can be modeled via Markov jump processes. Applications include chemical reactions, population dynamics, and telecommunication networks. Rare-event estimation for such models can be difficult and is often computationally expensive, because typically many (or very long) paths of the Markov jump process need to be simulated in order to observe the rare event. We present a state-dependent importance sampling approach to this problem that is adaptive and uses Markov chain Monte Carlo to sample from the zero-variance importance sampling distribution. The method is applicable to a wide range of Markov jump processes and achieves high accuracy, while requiring only a small sample to obtain the importance parameters. We demonstrate its efficiency through benchmark examples in queueing theory and stochastic chemical kinetics.
We studied the effect of a cross-conjugated bridging group (χC) on charge-transfer in a push-pull chromophore system. The hyperpolarizability of such molecules was found to be comparable to that of a fully π-conjugated molecule (πC) with the same donor and acceptor. The cross-conjugated moiety was then applied as a pendant to a fully π-conjugated chromophore containing a tricyanopyrroline acceptor (TCP). The addition of a χC moiety did not alter the intrinsic hyperpolarizability and provides an avenue for extending and aiding πC systems. The molecules were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), hyper-Raleigh scattering (HRS) and UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Experimental results were compared with the predictions of density functional theory (DFT). Cross-conjugated molecules have comparable β values, relative to πC molecules, due to reduced spatial overlap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). Thus, the χC architecture could facilitate independent modification of donor and acceptor strengths while minimizing unfavorable effects on electronic transitions and dipole moments.
Weak lensing detections and measurements of filaments have been elusive for a long time. The reason is that the low density contrast of filaments generally pushes the weak lensing signal to unobservably low scales. To nevertheless map the dark matter in filaments exquisite data and unusual systems are necessary. SuprimeCam observations of the supercluster system Abell 222/223 provided the required combination of excellent seeing images and a fortuitous alignment of the filament with the line-of-sight. This boosted the lensing signal to a detectable level and led to the first weak lensing mass measurement of a large-scale structure filament. The filament connecting Abell 222 and Abell 223 is now the only one traced by the galaxy distribution, dark matter, and X-ray emission from the hottest phase of the warm-hot intergalactic medium. The combination of these data allows us to put the first constraints on the hot gas fraction in filaments.
An experimental analysis of the morphology changes of hexagonally close packed polystyrene sphere monolayers induced by annealing in air is presented. The triangular interstices between each triple of spheres, which are frequently used as nanoscale mask openings in colloidal lithography, are observed to gradually shrink in size and change in shape upon annealing. Top view scanning electron microscopy images reveal that different stages are involved in the closure of monolayer interstices at annealing temperatures in the range between 110°C and 120°C. In the early stages shrinkage of the triangular interstices is dominated by material transport to and thus shortening of their corners, in the late stages interstice area reduction via displacement of the triangle edges becomes significant. At intermediate annealing times the rate of interstice area reduction displays a maximum before a stabilized state characterized by a rounded isosceles triangular shape forms.