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Introduction: Buprenorphine/naloxone (buprenorphine) has proven to be a life-saving intervention amidst the ongoing opioid epidemic in Canada. Research has shown benefits to initiating buprenorphine from the emergency department (ED) including improved treatment retention, systemic health care savings and fewer drug-related visits to the ED. Despite this, there has been little to no uptake of this evidence-based practice in our department. This qualitative study aimed to determine the local barriers and potential solutions to initiating buprenorphine in the ED and gain an understanding of physician attitudes and behaviours regarding harm reduction care and opioid use disorder management. Methods: ED physicians at a midsize Atlantic hospital were recruited by convenience sampling to participate in semi-structured privately conducted interviews. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and de-identified transcripts were uploaded to NVivo 12 plus for concept driven and inductive coding and a hierarchy of open, axial and selective coding was employed. Transcripts were independently reviewed by a local qualitative research expert and themes were compared for similarity to limit bias. Interview saturation was reached after 7 interviews. Results: Emergent themes included a narrow scope of harm reduction care that primarily focused on abstinence-based therapies and a multitude of biases including feelings of deception, fear of diversion, feeling buprenorphine induction was too time consuming for the ED and differentiating patients with opioid use disorder from ‘medically ill’ patients. Several barriers and proposed solutions to initiating buprenorphine from the ED were elicited including lack of training and need for formal education, poor familiarity with buprenorphine, the need for an algorithm and community bridge program and formal supports such as an addictions consult team for the ED. Conclusion: This study elicited several opportunities for improved care for patients with addictions presenting to our ED. Future education will focus on harm reduction care, specifically strategies for managing patients desiring to continue to use substances. Education will focus on addressing the multitude of biases elicited and dispelling common myths. A locally informed buprenorphine pathway will be developed. In future, this study may be used to advocate for improved formal supports for our department including an addictions consult team.
A field study was conducted in 2015 and 2016 at the H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station near Crowley, Louisiana, to evaluate the interactions of quizalofop and a mixture of propanil plus thiobencarb applied sequentially or mixed to control weedy rice and barnyardgrass. Visual weed control evaluations occurred at 14, 28, and 42 d after treatment (DAT). Quizalofop was applied at 120 g ai ha−1 at 7, 3, and 1 d before and after propanil plus thiobencarb were each applied at 3,360 g ai ha−1. In addition, quizalofop was applied alone and in a mixture with propanil plus thiobencarb at day 0. Control of red rice ‘CL-111’ and ‘CLXL-745’ was greater than 91% when quizalofop was applied alone at day 0, similar to control for quizalofop applied 7, 3, and 1 d prior to propanil plus thiobencarb at all evaluation dates. Control of the same weeds treated with quizalofop plus propanil plus thiobencarb applied in a mixture at day 0 was 70% to 76% at each evaluation date, similar to quizalofop applied 1 or 3 d after propanil plus thiobencarb. A similar trend in control of barnyardgrass by 88% to 97% occurred when quizalofop was applied alone and by 48% to 53% at 14, 28, and 42 DAT when the mixture was used. ‘PVL01’ rough rice yield was 4,060 kg ha−1 when treated with quizalofop alone; however, yield was reduced to 3,180 kg ha−1 when it was treated with quizalofop mixed with propanil plus thiobencarb at day 0, similar to PVL01 rice treated with quizalofop 1 or 3 d following the propanil plus thiobencarb application.
A field study was conducted during the 2016 and 2017 crop seasons at the LSU AgCenter H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station to evaluate weed control and rice yield after quizalofop-p-ethyl applications in water-seeded coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)–resistant ‘PVLO1’ long-grain rice production utilizing different flood systems, application timings, and quizalofop rates. The initial application of quizalofop was applied at five timings beginning when ‘PVLO1’ rice was at the coleoptile stage (PEG) through the one- to two-tiller stage. A total quizalofop rate of 240 g ai ha–1 was split into two applications: 97 followed by 143 g ha–1 or 120 followed by 120 g ai ha–1 in both pinpoint and delayed flood water-seeded management systems. A second quizalofop application was applied 14 d after initial treatment (DAIT). At 14 DAIT, a reduction in control of barnyardgrass and red rice was observed by delaying the initial quizalofop application to the two- to four-tiller stage compared with rice treated at earlier growth stages. At 42 DAIT, control of barnyardgrass was 94% to 96%, and red rice was 98% following the second application of quizalofop, regardless of initial application timing. Rice treated with quizalofop at the PEG and two- and three-leaf stage resulted in a rice height of 104 cm at harvest compared with 96 to 100 cm when the initial application of quizalofop was delayed to later growth stages. Applying the initial application of quizalofop to rice at the PEG timing in the pinpoint or the delayed flood system resulted in a total gross value per hectare of $450 and $590, respectively. Within each flood system, delaying the initial application of quizalofop to the one- to two-tiller stage resulted in a gross per-hectare value reduction of $100 ha-1 in the pinpoint flood and $110 ha-1 in the delayed flood.
Provisia™ rice was developed recently by the BASF Corporation for control of grass weeds and is complementary to existing Clearfield® technology. Our previous research showed that resistance of Provisia™ rice to the acetyl coenzyme-A carboxylase herbicide quizalofop-p-ethyl (QPE) in laboratory and greenhouse environments is governed by a single dominant Mendelian gene. However, these results may not be consistent in different populations or field environments. Therefore, the first objective of the current research is to determine the inheritance of resistance to QPE in rice using different segregating populations evaluated under U.S. field environments. The second objective is to evaluate the response of QPE-resistant breeding lines to various herbicide concentrations at two U.S. locations. Chi-square tests of 12 F2 populations evaluated in Louisiana during 2014 and 2015 indicated that QPE seedling resistance at 240 g ai ha−1 was governed by a single dominant Mendelian gene with no observable maternal effects. Similar results were obtained in five F3 populations derived from the aforementioned F2 populations. Allele-specific SNP markers for QPE resistance also followed Mendelian segregation in the five F2 populations. For the second objective, six QPE-resistant inbred lines showed transient leaf injury at 1× (120 g ai ha−1) or 2× (240 g ai ha−1) field rates 7 and 21 d after treatment (DAT). However, a trend of reduced injury (recovery) from 7 through 33 DAT was observed for all breeding material. No differences in grain yield were found between untreated QPE-resistant lines and those treated with 1× or 2× QPE field rate. Single gene inheritance and good levels of QPE herbicide field resistance in different genetic populations suggest feasibility for rapid and effective development of new QPE-resistant varieties and effective stewardship of the Provisia™ technology.
Acetyl co-enzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-resistant rice allows quizlaofop-p-ethyl to be applied as a POST control of troublesome grass weeds. A field study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 at the H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station near Crowley, LA, to evaluate the influence of a crop oil concentrate (COC), a silicon-based surfactant plus a nitrogen source (SNS), or a high-concentrate COC (HCOC) in overcoming the grass weed control antagonism of quizalofop-p-ethyl when mixed with bispyribac-Na. Quizalofop-p-ethyl was applied at 120 g ai ha−1, bispyribac-Na was applied at 34 g ai ha−1, and all adjuvants were applied at 1% vol/vol. Antagonistic interactions were observed at 14 d after treatment (DAT) when quizalofop-p-ethyl was mixed with bispyribac-Na with no adjuvant for control of barnyardgrass, the non–ACCase-tolerant rice cultivars ‘CL-111’ and ‘CLXL-745’, and red rice. At 14 DAT, antagonism of quizalofop-p-ethyl for control of barnyardgrass was observed when mixed with bispyribac-Na plus COC, SNS, or HCOC, with an observed control of 43%, 63%, and 86%, respectively, compared with an expected control of 95% for quizalofop-p-ethyl alone. However, the antagonism of quizalofop-p-ethyl when mixed with bispyribac-Na plus HCOC for barnyardgrass control at 14 DAT was overcome by 28 DAT, with an observed control of 91%, compared with an expected control of 97%. Synergistic or neutral interactions were observed at 14 and 28 DAT when COC, SNS, or HCOC was added to a mixture of quizalofop-p-ethyl plus bispyribac-Na for CL-111, CLXL-745, and red rice control. According to the results of this study, HCOC is the most effective adjuvant for quizalofop-p-ethyl and bispyribac-Na mixtures for control of weedy rice and barnyardgrass.
A study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 at the H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station near Crowley, LA, to evaluate quizalofop at 120 g ai ha−1 applied independently or in a mixture with clomazone, pendimethalin, clomazone plus pendimethalin, or a prepackaged mixture of clomazone plus pendimethalin when PVLO1 rice reached the two- to three-leaf stage. A second application of quizalofop at 120 g ha−1 was applied 21 d after the initial application. At 7 days after treatment (DAT), antagonism of quizalofop occurred when mixed with clomazone at 334 g ai ha−1, clomazone at 334 g ai ha−1 plus pendimethalin at 810 g ai ha−1, or a prepackaged mixture of clomazone plus pendimethalin at 334 plus 810 g ai ha−1, respectively, when applied to barnyardgrass. At 7 DAT, a neutral interaction occurred with a mixture of quizalofop plus pendimethalin at 810 g ha−1. These data indicate the antagonism of quizalofop was overcome at 14, 28, and 42 DAT with a neutral interaction for barnyardgrass control, 94% to 98%, with all herbicide mixtures evaluated. A neutral interaction occurred for CL-111, CLXL-745, and red rice control when treated with all the herbicide mixtures evaluated across all evaluation dates. Rice yield decreased when not treated with the initial quizalofop application.
We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
Background: Biallelic variants in POLR1C are associated with POLR3-related leukodystrophy (POLR3-HLD), or 4H leukodystrophy (Hypomyelination, Hypodontia, Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism), and Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS). The clinical spectrum of POLR3-HLD caused by variants in this gene has not been described. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study involving 25 centers worldwide was conducted between 2016 and 2018. The clinical, radiologic and molecular features of 23 unreported and previously reported cases of POLR3-HLD caused by POLR1C variants were reviewed. Results: Most participants presented between birth and age 6 years with motor difficulties. Neurological deterioration was seen during childhood, suggesting a more severe phenotype than previously described. The dental, ocular and endocrine features often seen in POLR3-HLD were not invariably present. Five patients (22%) had a combination of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy and abnormal craniofacial development, including one individual with clear TCS features. Several cases did not exhibit all the typical radiologic characteristics of POLR3-HLD. A total of 29 different pathogenic variants in POLR1C were identified, including 13 new disease-causing variants. Conclusions: Based on the largest cohort of patients to date, these results suggest novel characteristics of POLR1C-related disorder, with a spectrum of clinical involvement characterized by hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with or without abnormal craniofacial development reminiscent of TCS.
A study was conducted at the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center’s H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station in 2017 and 2018 to evaluate a prepackaged mixture of clomazone plus pendimethalin applied delayed preemergence (DPRE) or POST within an herbicide residual overlay with saflufenacil, clomazone, or quinclorac. POST applications included penoxsulam or halosulfuron in combination with the second residual application. No differences were observed in barnyardgrass control (92% to 98%) at 14 days after treatment (DAT). At 42 DAT, barnyardgrass treated with clomazone plus pendimethalin in combination with either clomazone or quinclorac at either timing was controlled 95% to 96%. However, when saflufenacil was applied PRE, regardless of the POST herbicide or when saflufenacil was applied POST with halosulfuron, barnyardgrass control was reduced to 78% to 81%, compared with 95% to 96% with the control with all other residual combinations. Yellow nutsedge and rice flatsedge control increased when treated with halosulfuron compared with penoxsulam across all evaluation dates. At 28 and 42 DAT, texasweed treated with saflufenacil PRE, regardless of POST applications, was controlled 83% and 87%, respectively, and this was greater control than provided by clomazone or quinclorac applied PRE regardless of POST herbicide program.
A glasshouse study was conducted on the Louisiana State University campus in Baton Rouge, LA, to evaluate the control of brook crowngrass, rice cutgrass, southern watergrass, and water paspalum. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl was applied at 30 g ai ha−1 to each grass species at the 3- to 4-leaf or 1- to 2-stolon stage of growth. Brook crowngrass treated with florpyrauxifen was controlled 71% at 21 d after treatment. Southern watergrass and water paspalum control did not exceed 56% and 36%, respectively, across all evaluations. Rice cutgrass treated with florpyrauxifen did not reach 15% control. Plants treated with florpyrauxifen, except rice cutgrass, displayed reduction in leaf number, stolon number, plant height, and plant fresh weight. These results indicate florpyrauxifen-benzyl can help manage a brook crowngrass infestation and suppress southern watergrass. However, florpyrauxifen-benzyl has little to no activity on water paspalum and rice cutgrass, and other management options should be employed if these weeds are present.
A field study was conducted in 2015 and 2016 near Crowley, LA, to evaluate antagonistic, synergistic, or neutral interactions of quizalofop when mixed with contact herbicides labeled for use in rice production. Quizalofop was applied at 120 g ai ha−1. Mixture herbicides included bentazon at 1,050 g ai ha−1, carfentrazone at 18 g ai ha−1, propanil at 3,360 g ai ha−1, saflufenacil at 25 g ai ha−1, and thiobencarb at 3,360 g ai ha−1. A second application of quizalofop at 120 g ha−1 was made at 28 d after the initial application (DAIT) to evaluate control of weeds escaping the initial treatment. At 14 and 28 DAIT, red rice, ‘CLXL-745’, and ‘CL-111’ treated with quizalofop plus propanil indicated an antagonistic response with an observed control of 69% to 71% compared with an expected control of 92% to 94%. Barnyardgrass treated with the same mixture also indicated an antagonistic response at 14 and 28 DAIT with an observed control of 16% compared with an expected control of 94%. Barnyardgrass treated with quizalofop plus saflufenacil indicated an antagonistic response at 14 DAIT; however, the same mixture produced a neutral response by 28 DAIT. In addition, a second application of quizalofop was not able to overcome the antagonism observed with a quizalofop plus propanil mixture at 14 and 28 DAIT for red rice, CLXL-745, CL-111, or barnyardgrass control. Quizalofop mixed with carfentrazone or thiobencarb produced a neutral response for all weeds evaluated at each evaluation date.
We describe the motivation and design details of the ‘Phase II’ upgrade of the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. The expansion doubles to 256 the number of antenna tiles deployed in the array. The new antenna tiles enhance the capabilities of the Murchison Widefield Array in several key science areas. Seventy-two of the new tiles are deployed in a regular configuration near the existing array core. These new tiles enhance the surface brightness sensitivity of the array and will improve the ability of the Murchison Widefield Array to estimate the slope of the Epoch of Reionisation power spectrum by a factor of ∼3.5. The remaining 56 tiles are deployed on long baselines, doubling the maximum baseline of the array and improving the array u, v coverage. The improved imaging capabilities will provide an order of magnitude improvement in the noise floor of Murchison Widefield Array continuum images. The upgrade retains all of the features that have underpinned the Murchison Widefield Array’s success (large field of view, snapshot image quality, and pointing agility) and boosts the scientific potential with enhanced imaging capabilities and by enabling new calibration strategies.
A glasshouse study was established at Louisiana State University campus in Baton Rouge, LA, to evaluate the control of fall panicum and Nealley’s sprangletop treated with florpyrauxifen-benzyl. Florpyrauxifen was applied at 30 g ai ha–1 to each grass species at the three- to four-leaf and one- to two-tiller stages of growth. At 21 d after treatment (DAT), fall panicum control was 91% when treated with florpyrauxifen at the three- to four-leaf stage, and Nealley’s sprangletop control was 78% to 82%, regardless of application timing 21 DAT. Leaf number, tiller number, plant height, and plant fresh weight were reduced when fall panicum and Nealley’s sprangletop were treated with florpyrauxifen. This information can be useful for developing weed management strategies with this herbicide for rice production, and it provides an additional mode of action to help manage and/or delay the development of herbicide-resistant weeds.
Two field studies were conducted in Louisiana to determine the impact of Nealley’s sprangletop on rough rice yield under multiple environments in 2014, 2015, and 2016. The first study evaluated optimal timings of Nealley’s sprangletop removal for optimizing rough rice yields. The second study evaluated the impact of Nealley’s sprangletop densities on rough rice yield. Nealley’s sprangletop was removed with applications of fenoxaprop at 122 g ai ha–1 at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 d after emergence (DAE). Nealley’s sprangletop removal at 7 and 14 DAE resulted in higher rough rice yields of 7,880 and 6,960 kg ha–1, respectively, when compared with the rice from the season-long Nealley’s sprangletop competition with a 6,040 kg ha-1 yield. Delaying herbicide application from 7 DAE to 42 DAE resulted in a yield loss of 1,740 kg ha–1. Over the 35-d delay in application, rough rice yield loss from Nealley’s sprangletop interference was equivalent to 50 kg ha–1 d–1. Nealley’s sprangletop densities were established at 1, 3, 7, 13, and 26 plants m–2 by transplanting Nealley’s sprangletop when rice reached the one- to two-leaf stage. At Nealley’s sprangletop densities of 1 to 26 plants m–2, rough rice yields were reduced 10 to 270 kg ha–1, compared with the rice from weed-free plots. Based on regression analysis, Nealley’s sprangletop densities of 1, 35, 70, and 450 plants m–2 reduced rough rice yield 0.14%, 5%, 10%, and 50%, respectively.
Hydatigera (Cestoda: Taeniidae) is a recently resurrected genus including species seldom investigated in sub-Saharan Africa. We surveyed wild small mammal populations in the areas of Richard Toll and Lake Guiers, Senegal, with the objective to evaluate their potential role as intermediate hosts of larval taeniid stages (i.e. metacestodes). Based on genetic sequences of a segment of the mitochondrial DNA gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI), we identified Hydatigera parva metacestodes in 19 out of 172 (11.0%) Hubert's multimammate mice (Mastomys huberti) and one out of six (16.7%) gerbils (Taterillus sp.) and Hydatigera taeniaeformis sensu stricto metacestodes in one out of 215 (0.5%) Nile rats (Arvicanthis niloticus). This study reports epidemiological and molecular information on H. parva and H. taeniaeformis in West African rodents, further supporting the phylogeographic hypothesis on the African origin of H. parva. Our findings may indicate significant trophic interactions contributing to the local transmission of Hydatigera spp. and other parasites with similar life-cycle mechanisms. We therefore propose that further field investigations of rodent population dynamics and rodent-borne infectious organisms are necessary to improve our understanding of host–parasite associations driving the transmission risks of rodent parasites in West Africa.
Adult schistosomes live in the blood vessels and cannot easily be sampled from humans, so archived miracidia larvae hatched from eggs expelled in feces or urine are commonly used for population genetic studies. Large collections of archived miracidia on FTA cards are now available through the Schistosomiasis Collection at the Natural History Museum (SCAN). Here we describe protocols for whole genome amplification of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosome haematobium miracidia from these cards, as well as real time PCR quantification of amplified schistosome DNA. We used microgram quantities of DNA obtained for exome capture and sequencing of single miracidia, generating dense polymorphism data across the exome. These methods will facilitate the transition from population genetics, using limited numbers of markers to population genomics using genome-wide marker information, maximising the value of collections such as SCAN.
A field study was conducted in 2015 and 2016 at the H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station (RRS) to evaluate antagonistic, synergistic, or neutral interactions of quizalofop when mixed with ALS-inhibiting herbicides labeled in rice production. Quizalofop was applied at 120 g ai ha−1. Mixture herbicides included penoxsulam at 40 g ai ha−1, penoxsulam+triclopyr at 352 g ai ha−1, halosulfuron at 53 g ai ha−1, bispyribac at 34 g ai ha−1, orthosulfamuron+halosulfuron at 94 g ai ha−1, orthosulfamuron+quinclorac at 491 g ai ha−1, imazosulfuron at 211 g ai ha−1, and bensulfuron at 43 g ai ha−1. All ALS herbicides mixed with quizalofop indicated antagonistic responses for red rice, CL-111, CLXL 745, or barnyardgrass control at either 14 or 28 days after treatment (DAT). At 28 DAT, quizalofop mixed with penoxsulam or bispyribac controlled barnyardgrass 34 to 38%, compared with an expected control of 97%. In addition, these same mixtures controlled red rice, CL-111, and CLXL-745 61 to 67% at 28 DAT compared with an expected control of 96 to 97%. A second application of quizalofop at 120 g ha−1 was applied at 28 DAT. At 42 DAT, neutral responses were indicated for all mixtures except with quizalofop mixed with penoxsulam containing products.
A study was conducted at three locations in Louisiana to evaluate the response of common Louisiana rice weed species to different rates of application of benzobicyclon herbicide. Benzobicyclon was applied at 31, 62, 123, 185, 246, 493, 739, 986, and 1,232 g ai ha–1 into flooded field conditions when ducksalad was at the first elongated-leaf stage. Barnyardgrass, false pimpernel, and yellow nutsedge control never exceeded 50% from any rate of benzobicyclon applied, averaged across evaluation timing. Ducksalad control, averaged across evaluation timing, was 83% when treated with 493 g ha−1 and did not increase when treated with higher rates of benzobicyclon. At 42 d after treatment (DAT), purple ammannia and Indian toothcup treated with 185 and 246 g ha–1 of benzobicyclon were controlled 58% and 81%, respectively, and did not differ in control compared with higher rates of benzobicyclon. All weeds were hand-harvested from each plot and separated by species at the conclusion of the study. No differences in fresh-weight biomass were observed for barnyardgrass, false pimpernel, purple ammannia, or yellow nutsedge. Treatment with benzobicyclon at ≥62 g ha–1 resulted in reduced ducksalad fresh weight 42 DAT compared with the nontreated sample. Indian toothcup fresh weight was reduced 77% to 96% compared with the nontreated sample when treated with benzobicyclon at 246 to 1,232 g ha–1.
We examined the insecticidal activity of linalool and thymol, against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), and whether they would synergise the activity of spinosad against this pest. Both linalool and thymol were toxic to diamondback moth larvae by topical and oral exposure, but orders of magnitude less so than spinosad. We found that low concentrations of linalool weakly synergised spinosad, increasing its toxicity more than twofold. An interaction between spinosad, and acetone meant it was not possible to identify any potential synergisms between thymol and spinosad. Our results demonstrate limited potential for thymol and linalool to act as biopesticides or synergists for managing diamondback moth.