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Depth profiles of intrinsic in-plane, biaxial stresses were obtained as a function of τ, the 1/e penetration depth, in a 1.0 um thick planar d. c. magentron sputter deposited molybdenum film using asymmetric grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD). τ was varied between 20 and 276 Å. The stresses σ11 and σ22 were characterized in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the long axis of the cathode respectively using a cos2φ method. The results show that starting from τ=17Å, σ11 and σ22 are compressive and become rapidly more compressive with a minimum at τ ∼ 20 - 40 Å thereafter increasing gradually toward tensile values. The reasons for the shape of the stress gradient are not well understood but may be related to the relaxation of the stresses at the tops of the columnar Zone T-type microstructure and to the oxygen gradient in the film.
The globular cluster (GC) system of the Milky Way (MW) provides important information on the MW’s present structure and past evolution. Full 3d motions, accessed through proper motions (PMs), are required to calculate accurate orbits of GCs in the MW halo. We present our HST program to create a PM database for 20 halo GCs. We demonstrate how the observed PMs of individual GCs can be used to study their origins, and we also describe how the PM measurements of our entire targets can be used to constrain the anisotropy profile. Finally, we describe how our PM results can be used for Gaia as an external check, and discuss prospects of PM measurements with HST and Gaia in the coming years.
Proper motions (PMs) are required to calculate accurate orbits of globular clusters (GCs) in the Milky Way (MW) halo. We present our HST program to create a PM database for 20 GCs at distances of RGC = 10–100 kpc. Targets are discussed along with PM measurement methods. We also describe how our PM results can be used for Gaia as an external check, and discuss the synergy between HST and Gaia as astrometric instruments in the coming years.
Carrying the apoE ε4 allele (E4+) is the most important genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease. Unlike non-carriers (E4 − ), E4+ seem not to be protected against Alzheimer's disease when consuming fish. We hypothesised that this may be linked to a disturbance in n-3 DHA metabolism in E4+. The aim of the present study was to evaluate [13C]DHA metabolism over 28 d in E4+v. E4 − . A total of forty participants (twenty-six women and fourteen men) received a single oral dose of 40 mg [13C]DHA, and its metabolism was monitored in blood and breath over 28 d. Of the participants, six were E4+ and thirty-four were E4 − . In E4+, mean plasma [13C]DHA was 31 % lower than that in E4 − , and cumulative β-oxidation of [13C]DHA was higher than that in E4 − 1–28 d post-dose (P≤ 0·05). A genotype × time interaction was detected for cumulative β-oxidation of [13C]DHA (P≤ 0·01). The whole-body half-life of [13C]DHA was 77 % lower in E4+ compared with E4 − (P≤ 0·01). In E4+ and E4 − , the percentage dose of [13C]DHA recovered/h as 13CO2 correlated with [13C]DHA concentration in plasma, but the slope of linear regression was 117 % steeper in E4+ compared with E4 − (P≤ 0·05). These results indicate that DHA metabolism is disturbed in E4+, and may help explain why there is no association between DHA levels in plasma and cognition in E4+. However, whether E4+ disturbs the metabolism of 13C-labelled fatty acids other than DHA cannot be deduced from the present study.
A review of the Transmission Electron Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques used for electronic defect identification is presented. The structural, chemical and STEM based spectroscopy methods for electronic defect analysis are discussed along with selected examples.
We have investigated the effect of stress upon the infrared absorption spectrum of the neutral charge state of the oxygen donor in silicon. Our results show that the central cell of the donor has C2ν, symmetry and that this anisotropy gives rise to a ground state wave function that is constructed from a single pair of conduction band valleys.
The silicon “dangling bond” defect plays a large part in controlling the electronic properties of a-Si, polycrystalline silicon, and the Si/Si0 2 interface. Jackson et al. have suggested that transitions of electrons occupying this defect produce the Urbach-like sub-gap absorption tail seen in two of these materials. We have performed optical and electron spin resonance measurements on polycrystalline silicon, plastically deformed silicon, and Si/Si02 interfaces to further examine this contention. In addition to seeing no measurable absorptance due to dangling bond interface states in the latter system, we conclude from the poor correlation of ESR signals with optical data that the Urbach tail in polycrystalline and deformed silicon is not due to transitions of dangling bond electrons.
The kinetics of charge capture by deep donors in AlxGa1-xAs have been measured. The time dependence indicates that a single energy cannot be used to describe the trap. A model assuming thermally activated capture into a resonance in the conduction band with a range of energies gives excellent fits to the data and provides a measure of the energy range for the trap. This model is consistent with the large lattice relaxation model for DX centers. The increase of the activation energy for capture as the Al mole fraction is decreased contradicts the model which attributes the decay of the persistent photoconductivity to tunneling through the heterojunction barrier in modulationdoped structures.
Measurements are reported, for 0.5 mm thick semi-insulating (S.I.) GaAs wafers, of the neutral EL2 distribution, the pattern of dislocations, and of MESFET electrical parameters - these devices built on the same wafers. These results indicate that the device properties are more affected by EL2 nonuniformity than by dislocation density pattern.
A deep photoluminescence (PL) band peaking at 1.08 eV in Cu-doped GaP has been studied by means of optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR). We report an intense S=l ODMR spectrum arising from this PL band. The signal is strongly anisotropic and consistent with a center of triclinic symmetry. Some of the ODMR transitions show a well resolved hyperfine structure in agreement with the nuclear spin I=3/2 of Cu, thus suggesting the presence of Cu in the defect.
This paper discusses recent improvements achieved in the growth of epitaxial layers of GaAs and AlGaAs using the liquid arsine substitute tertiarybutylarsine (TBA) and metal alkyls. The high purity TBA now available yields undoped GaAs with residual donor/acceptor concentrations in the low 1014 cm−3 range. Under optimized growth conditiorp the layers are either n-type and have 77*K mobilities up to 85,000 cm2 //Vs or they are compensated or p-type. For aluminum gallium arsenide, layers grown with TBA have properties similar to arsine-grown material as demonstrated by low temperature photoluminescence (PL). The PL efficiencies and line widths of the TBA-grown AlGaAs samples are comparable to those prepared with arsine.