To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Breastfeeding may reduce obesity risk, but this association could be confounded by breastfeeding families’ characteristics. We investigated if body composition differs at birth among infants who were either exclusively breast- or formula-fed. We hypothesized the two groups would differ in body composition, even at birth, prior to their post-natal feeding experience. Healthy primiparous carrying singleton pregnancy were recruited at 15 weeks’ gestation. PEA POD® measured body composition within 72 hours of delivery and infant feeding was prospectively captured. Out of the 1,152 infants recruited, 117 (10.2%) and 239 (20.7%) went on to be either exclusively breast- or formula-fed, respectively. Breastfed infants were heavier at birth, but their percentage fat mass (FM) was lower than that of exclusively formula-fed infants (covariate adjusted β = −1.91 percentage points of FM; 95% CI −2.82 to −1.01). Differences in intra-uterine exposures, irrespective of early diet, may partly explain an infant’s obesity risk.
The novel Volumetric Image Matching Environment for Radiotherapy (VIMER) was developed to allow users to view both computed tomography (CT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) datasets within the same 3D model in virtual reality (VR) space. Stereoscopic visualisation of both datasets combined with custom slicing tools and complete freedom in motion enables alternative inspection and matching of the datasets for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT).
Material and methods:
A qualitative study was conducted to explore the challenges and benefits of VIMER with respect to image registration. Following training and use of the software, an interview session was conducted with a sample group of six university staff members with clinical experience in image matching.
User discomfort and frustration stemmed from unfamiliarity with the drastically different input tools and matching interface. As the primary advantage, the users reported match inspection efficiency when presented with the 3D volumetric renderings of the planning and secondary CBCT datasets.
This study provided initial evidence for the achievable benefits and limitations to consider when implementing a 3D voxel-based dataset comparison VR tool including a need for extensive training and the minimal interruption to IGRT workflow. Key advantages include efficient 3D anatomical interpretation and the capability for volumetric matching.
Qualitative inorganic analysis is required for the identification of unknowns, the classification of type, and sometimes to decide what subsequent quantitative analysis is needed. The traditional way of performing qualitative XRF analysis on unknown materials is by subjecting the sample to a full spectral scan. This takes time and an experienced operator to interpret the spectra. Classifying the elements detected as major, minor or trace can also be person dependent. Round robin tests have confirmed this by showing considerable variation in results between laboratories.
High-residue cover crops can facilitate organic no-till vegetable production when cover crop biomass production is sufficient to suppress weeds (>8000 kg ha−1), and cash crop growth is not limited by soil temperature, nutrient availability, or cover crop regrowth. In cool climates, however, both cover crop biomass production and soil temperature can be limiting for organic no-till. In addition, successful termination of cover crops can be a challenge, particularly when cover crops are grown as mixtures. We tested whether reusable plastic tarps, an increasingly popular tool for small-scale vegetable farmers, could be used to augment organic no-till cover crop termination and weed suppression. We no-till transplanted cabbage into a winter rye (Secale cereale L.)-hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) cover crop mulch that was terminated with either a roller-crimper alone or a roller-crimper plus black or clear tarps. Tarps were applied for durations of 2, 4 and 5 weeks. Across tarp durations, black tarps increased the mean cabbage head weight by 58% compared with the no tarp treatment. This was likely due to a combination of improved weed suppression and nutrient availability. Although soil nutrients and biological activity were not directly measured, remaining cover crop mulch in the black tarp treatments was reduced by more than 1100 kg ha−1 when tarps were removed compared with clear and no tarp treatments. We interpret this as an indirect measurement of biological activity perhaps accelerated by lower daily soil temperature fluctuations and more constant volumetric water content under black tarps. The edges of both tarp types were held down, rather than buried, but moisture losses from the clear tarps were greater and this may have affected the efficacy of clear tarps. Plastic tarps effectively killed the vetch cover crop, whereas it readily regrew in the crimped but uncovered plots. However, emergence of large and smooth crabgrass (Digitaria spp.) appeared to be enhanced in the clear tarp treatment. Although this experiment was limited to a single site-year in New Hampshire, it shows that use of black tarps can overcome some of the obstacles to implementing cover crop-based no-till vegetable productions in northern climates.
Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumors (AT/RTs) often affect children under the age of 3 and are the most common malignant CNS tumors in children younger than 6 months. It is very rare to see these tumors in patients older than 6 years of age. We discuss the case of a 14 year old male with AT/RT of the right insula. He had a prior diagnosis of Dysembryoplastic Neuroectodermal Tumor (DNET) at the age of 10, after two years of intermittent headaches, nausea, and seizures, which was treated with conformal radiation and chemotherapy for a year. Following the diagnosis of AT/RT, he underwent radiotherapy, multiple lines of chemotherapy, and two additional debulking surgeries of the left temporal lobe due to continuing progression. He was then treated with Alisertib (an Aurora-A kinase inhibitor) with good response on sequential MRIs after the first three cycles. He progressed after nine cycles of Alisertib and required further debulking surgery. Six years after his AT/RT diagnosis (and 10 years after his DNET diagnosis), the patient expired at the age of 20 due to ongoing progression. To our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of Alisertib use in a non-pediatric AT/RT case. We also performed a literature review of all reported cases of AT/RT in adults between the years 2000 – 2017 and discuss treatment options, patient demographics, and survival.
Background: Bevacizumab has been used in recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM) since 2010 in Canada. Given its cost, potential toxicities, and unclear efficacy, further studies are required to better define suitable candidates for therapy. Methods: A single-center retrospective review of patients started on bevacizumab for rGBM from 2012 to 2015 was performed. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, treatment regimen, and dates of clinical progression and death were collected. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were used as clinical outcomes and estimates. Radiological response was assessed using modified Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology criteria. Results: A total of 80 patients were included. There were 67 reported deaths, and the median OS was 9.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI95%]=7.0-10.1 months), with a 12-month OS of 31% (CI95%=21.9-43.5%). Some 79 patients were included for analysis of clinical progression, among whom 61 had documented clinical progression. The median clinical PFS was 4.6 months (CI95%=3.8-6.4 months), and the 6-month clinical PFS was 39% (CI95%=29.0-52.9%). Addition of chemotherapy did not improve clinical outcomes. A total of 68 patients were included for radiological progression analysis, with 58 radiological progressions. The median radiological PFS was 5.8 months (CI95%=4.2-6.7 months), and the 6-month radiological PFS was 46% (CI95%=35.6-60.0%). Conclusions: This is the first reported Canadian experience with bevacizumab for rGBM. Our clinical outcomes are consistent with published data from multicenter phase II and III trials on bevacizumab in rGBM. More research is required to determine which subtype(s) of patients with rGBM could benefit from bevacizumab upon recurrence.
Calving speeds and calving mechanisms in fresh water contrast with those in tidewater. We obtained calving speeds for six lake-calving glaciers in New Zealand’s Southern Alps, and surveyed the depths and temperatures of their ice-contact lakes. The glaciers are temperate, grounded in shallow (≤20 m) water, and exhibit compressive flow at their termini. These data increase the global dataset of fresh-water calving statistics by 40%, bringing the total to 21 glaciers. For this dataset, calving rates (uc) correlate positively with water depths (hw) (r2 = 0.83), the relationship being expressed by: uc = 17.4 + 2.3 hw. This is an order of magnitude lower than values of uc at temperate tidewater glaciers. For a subset of 10 glaciers for which ice-proximal water temperature (tw) data are available, uc also correlates positively with tw, supporting a physical relation between calving and melting at and below the water-line. Fluctuations of New Zealand lake-calving glaciers in the period 1958–97 show that although the transition from non-calving to calving dramatically increases frontal retreat rates, the onset of calving does not isolate terminus change from climatic forcing. In terms of climatic sensitivity, lake-calving glaciers occupy an intermediate position between tidewater glaciers (least sensitive) and non-calving glaciers (most sensitive).
Data relating to calving dynamics in fresh water are scarce, especially for deep-water sites. A linear dependence of calving velocity (Vc) on water depth (Hw) is commonly accepted for both tidewater and fresh-water calving glaciers. Here we use recent data from temperate Patagonian glaciers to propose a revised relationship for calving in fresh water. The new ratio is derived from glaciers calving rapidly into deep water, documented using sequential satellite images and depth soundings. The main data source is a detailed remotely sensed dataset of the rapidly retreating Glaciar Upsala, complemented with global positioning system field surveys and precise ice-proximal bathymetric surveys. The area-integrated mean water depth between glacier positions in 1996 and 2000 is 490 m, with a maximum recorded depth of >700m. In the same period, image analysis reveals surface area loss of 1.37 km2 a–1 (4.8 km2) and an average calving rate of 1880ma–1. The resulting Vc/Hw ratio is of a similar order of magnitude to that recently derived for nearby Glaciar Moreno, but is well above the range of values commonly reported for lacustrine calving.
A finite-volume model is used to simulate 9 years (1995–2003) of snow temperatures at the South Pole. The upper boundary condition is skin-surface temperature derived from routine upwelling longwave radiation measurements, while the lower boundary condition is set to the seasonal temperature gradient at 6.5 m depth, taken from prior measurements at the South Pole. We focus on statistics of temperature, heat fluxes, heating rates and vapour pressures in the top metre of snow, but present results from the full depth of the model (6.5 m). The monthly mean net heat flux into the snow agrees with results from previous studies performed at the South Pole. On shorter timescales, the heating rates and vapour pressures show large variability. The net heat flux into the snow, which is between ±5 W m−2 in the monthly mean, can be greater than ±20 W m−2 on hourly timescales. On sub-daily timescales, heating rates exceed 40 K d−1 in the top 10 cm of the snow. Subsurface temperatures, and therefore heating rates, are more variable during winter (April–September) due to increased synoptic activity and the presence of a strong, surface-based, atmospheric temperature inversion. The largest vapour pressures (60–70 Pa) and vertical gradients of vapour pressure are found in the top metre of snow during the short summer (December–January). In contrast, during the long winter, the low temperatures result in very small vapour pressures and insignificant vapour-pressure gradients. The high summertime vapour-pressure gradients may be important in altering the isotopic composition of snow and ice on the Antarctic plateau.
Deep CCD imaging of the Serpens bipolar nebula shows it to be surrounded by molecular cloud material having spiral density structure. Polarization mapping indicates that the magnetic field in this material also exhibits spiral structure and we interpret this as the remains of the magnetically-braked collapse of a protostellar cloud. A binary star system has formed in the cloud core.
“VALUE,” WROTE John Ruskin (1862), “is the life-giving power of anything; cost, the quantity of labor required to produce it; price, the quantity of labor which its possessor will take in exchange for it”. These distinctions see obvious enough. Yet in the bustle of everyday modern life in a highly materialistic society, it seems increasingly difficult to separate “value” from “cost” and “price”. How do we — as individuals, groups, or a society — assign a value to something? What, in fact, do we value? A glance at television or a popular magazine offers some clues. We value things economic, those associated with “making a living”, with solving the everyday problems of making one's way in the world. We value things that enhance our position or status in society, or that make our lives easier or give us pleasure or diversion. We value things that make our lives meaningful. We do not tend to necessarily value what's good for us, at least not simply because someone tells us it is.
Repeat photographs and field survey reveal the mechanism of short-term ice-cliff evolution at Maud Glacier, a temperate lake-calving glacier in New Zealand. Calving is cyclic, each cycle involving four stages: (1) waterline melting and collapse of the roof of a sub-horizontal notch at the cliff foot; (2) calving of ice flakes from the cliff face leading to a growing overhang from the waterline upwards, and crack propagation from the glacier surface; (3) large but infrequent calving of slabs in response to the developing overhang, returning the cliff to an “initial” vertical profile; (4) rare subaqueous calving ofa submerged ice foot. Results indicate that the rate-controlling process is the speed of waterline melting, and that calving rate is independent of water depth (at least at time-scales of weeks to months). Slowly calving lake-terminating glaciers have mass balances more negative than land-terminating glaciers, but nevertheless advance and retreat in response to mass-balance driven changes in ice velocity.
Background: Radiotherapy with procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine improves overall survival (OS) in patients with 1p19q co-deleted anaplastic oligodendroglioma/anaplastic oligoastrocytoma. Methods: This retrospective analysis investigated outcomes in patients with 1p19q co-deleted/partially deleted oligodendroglioma, oligoastrocytoma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, or anaplastic oligoastrocytoma. OS and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and prognostic factors using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: A total of 106 patients (between December 1997 and December 2013) were included. Median age was 40 years (19-66), 58 were male (55%), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0 in 80 patients (75%). 1p19q status was co-deleted in 66 (62%), incompletely co-deleted in 27 (25%), and 1p or 19q loss alone in four (4%) and nine (8%) patients, respectively. Isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 R132H mutation was found in 67 of 85 patients with sufficient material. Upfront treatment was given in 72 (68%) patients and temozolomide alone in 52 (49%). Median time to radiotherapy in 47 patients (44%) was 34.7 months and 41.2 months in 9 patients with co-deleted/incompletely co-deleted anaplastic oligodendroglioma/anaplastic oligoastrocytoma who received upfront temozolomide alone. Median OS was not reached and 5-year OS was 91% for all groups (median follow-up, 5.1 years). On multivariable analysis for all patients, receipt of therapy upfront versus none (p=0.04), PS 1 versus 0 (p<0.001) and 1p19q co-deletion/incomplete deletion versus 1p or 19q loss alone (p=0.005) were prognostic for PFS. Isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 status was not prognostic for PFS. Conclusions: With similar survival patterns in low-grade/anaplastic gliomas, molecular characteristics may be more important than histological grade. Longer follow-up and results of prospective trials are needed for definitive guidance on treatment of these patients.