To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Several prospective longitudinal studies have suggested that somatic/affective depressive symptoms, but not cognitive/affective depressive symptoms, are related to prognosis in patients with heart disease, but findings have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of cognitive/affective and somatic/affective symptoms of depression with cardiovascular prognosis in patients with heart disease using a meta-analytic perspective.
A systematic search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE and PsycInfo. Thirteen prospective studies on symptom dimensions of depression and cardiovascular prognosis fulfilled the inclusion criteria, providing data on a total of 11 128 subjects. The risk estimates for each dimension of depressive symptoms, demographic and methodological variables were extracted from the included articles.
In least-adjusted analyses, both the somatic/affective [hazard ratio (HR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19–1.41, p < 0.001] and cognitive/affective (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.00–1.15, p = 0.05) dimensions of depressive symptoms were associated with cardiovascular prognosis. In fully adjusted analyses, somatic/affective symptoms were significantly associated with adverse prognosis (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.10–1.29, p < 0.001) but cognitive/affective symptoms were not (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.97–1.12, p = 0.25). An increase of one standard deviation (±1 s.d.) in the scores of the somatic/affective dimension was associated with a 32% increased risk of adverse outcomes (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.17–1.48, p < 0.001).
Somatic/affective depressive symptoms were more strongly and consistently associated with mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with heart disease compared with cognitive/affective symptoms. Future research should focus on the mechanisms by which somatic/affective depressive symptoms may affect cardiovascular prognosis.
Telomere length is considered an emerging marker of biological aging. Depression and anxiety are associated with excess mortality risk but the mechanisms remain obscure. Telomere length might be involved because it is associated with psychological distress and mortality. The aim of this study was to test whether anxiety and depressive disorders predict telomere length over time in a large population-based sample.
All analyses were performed in a longitudinal study in a general population cohort of 974 participants. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to measure the presence of anxiety and depressive disorders. Telomere length was measured using monochrome multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at approximately 2 years of follow-up. We used linear multivariable regression models to evaluate the association between anxiety and depressive disorders and telomere length, adjusting for adverse life events, lifestyle factors, educational level and antidepressant use.
The presence of anxiety disorders predicted shorter telomeres at follow-up (β = –0.073, t = –2.302, p = 0.022). This association was similar after controlling for adverse life events, lifestyle factors, educational level and antidepressant use (β = –0.077, t = –2.144, p = 0.032). No association was found between depressive disorders and shorter telomeres at follow-up (β = 0.010, t = 0.315, p = 0.753).
This study found that anxiety disorders predicted shorter telomere length at follow-up in a general population cohort. The association was not explained by adverse life events, lifestyle factors, educational level and antidepressant use. How anxiety disorders might lead to accelerated telomere shortening and whether this might be a mediator explaining the excess mortality risk associated with anxiety deserve further investigation.
Individual symptoms of post-myocardial infarction (MI) depression may be differentially associated with cardiac prognosis, in which somatic/affective symptoms appear to be associated with a worse cardiovascular prognosis than cognitive/affective symptoms. These findings hold important implications for treatment but need to be replicated before conclusions regarding treatment can be drawn. We therefore examined the relationship between depressive symptom dimensions following MI and both disease severity and prospective cardiac prognosis.
Patients (n=473) were assessed on demographic and clinical variables and completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) within the first week of hospital admission for acute MI. Depressive symptom dimensions were associated with baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and prospective cardiac death and/or recurrent MI. The average follow-up period was 2.8 years.
Factor analysis revealed two symptom dimensions – somatic/affective and cognitive/affective – in the underlying structure of the BDI, identical to previous results. There were 49 events attributable to cardiac death (n=23) or recurrent MI (n=26). Somatic/affective (p=0.010) but not cognitive/affective (p=0.153) symptoms were associated with LVEF and cardiac death/recurrent MI. When controlling for the effects of previous MI and LVEF, somatic/affective symptoms remained significantly predictive of cardiac death/recurrent MI (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.02–1.69, p=0.038). Previous MI was also an independent predictor of cardiac death/recurrent MI.
We confirmed that somatic/affective, rather than cognitive/affective, symptoms of depression are associated with MI severity and cardiovascular prognosis. Interventions to improve cardiovascular prognosis by treating depression should be targeted at somatic aspects of depression.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.