To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The regrowth of a C3 forage Stylosanthes capitata in a rain-fed field provided the weekly data collection in the southeast of Brazil during a heat event in autumn. A system named Trop-T-FACE simulated the free-air carbon dioxide enrichment and the enhanced temperature in four climatic regimes: current atmospheric conditions (Control), CO2 enrichment (600 ppm, eC), warming (2 °C above ambient canopy temperature, eT), and a combination of eC + eT. The area and biomass of foliage per shoot decreased, and the number of flowers per shoot and flowered ramification increased under single eC treatment besides the increment in palisade parenchyma of leaves. Increased investment in flowering in eC occurred notably when the soil water content was higher than 0.30 m3 m–3. Single eT treatment also impaired the area or biomass of foliage production per shoot, raised the shoot mortality, and promoted the increment of the spongy leaf parenchyma. There was some mitigation of the adverse effects of foliage production of eT or eC in eC + eT, but under this combined treatment, the shoot mortality also increased. Changes in leaf tissues under eC or eT or some mitigation of adverse effects in eC + eT did not offset the constraints on leaf growth per shoot. The harmful impact on foliage production by eC, eT, or eC + eT under rain-fed conditions indicated no advantages for feeding the livestock with the C3 forage S. capitata in expected climate change under field conditions.
A power MOSFET-based push–pull configuration nanosecond-pulse generator has been designed, constructed, and characterized to permeabilize cells for biological and medical applications. The generator can deliver pulses with durations ranging from 80 ns up to 1 µs and pulse amplitudes up to 1.4 kV. The unit has been tested for in vitro experiments on a medulloblastoma cell line. Following the exposure of cells to 100, 200, and 300 ns electric field pulses, permeabilization tests were carried out, and viability tests were conducted to verify the performance of the generator. The maximum temperature rise of the biological load was also calculated based on Joule heating energy conservation and experimental validation. Our results indicate that the developed device has good capabilities to achieve well-controlled electro-manipulation in vitro.
The purpose of the present study was to reconstruct the phylogeny of dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) that was circulating in Espírito Santo state, Brazil, in 2013 and 2014, and to discuss the epidemiological implications associated with this evolutionary hypothesis. Partial envelope gene of eight DENV-4 samples from Espírito Santo state were sequenced and aligned with 72 worldwide DENV-4 reference sequences from GenBank. A phylogenetic tree was reconstructed through Bayesian Inference and the Time of the Most Recent Common Ancestor was estimated. The study detected the circulation of DENV-4 genotype II in Espírito Santo state, which was closely related to strains from the states of Mato Grosso collected in 2012 and of São Paulo sampled in 2015. This cluster emerged around 2011, approximately 4 years after the entry of the genotype II in Brazil through its northern states, possibly imported from Venezuela and Colombia. This is so far the first phylogenetic study of the DENV-4 circulating in Espírito Santo state and shows the importance of an internal route of dengue viral circulation in Brazil to the introduction of the virus into this state.
Assessment of Tar Spot Complex (TSC) severity in maize breeding experiments is conducted visually and may sometimes result in inconsistencies due to human interpretation. Disease scoring using remote sensing technologies may help bring more precision to the phenotyping process. An experiment for assessment of grain yield losses due to TSC was conducted at the Aguafria Experimental Station of the International Center for Wheat and Maize Improvement – CIMMYT in Mexico. Twenty-five maize genotypes were planted in spring of 2016 under a fungicide treatment to control TSC development and no fungicide treatment in a square lattice design with three replications. Four flights were carried out using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) equipped with a multispectral (550, 660, 735, 790 nm) and a thermal camera, simultaneously with the visual disease scorings and the yield was measured after harvesting. The preliminary results of the study indicated that the use of remote sensing in disease resistance phenotyping may be as effective as visual disease scoring since both correlate highly with the grain yield. Structural and chlorophyll vegetation indices (VIs) proved to be a good alternative for the estimation of yield losses caused by TSC in experimental field conditions, which may be potentially used for screening for resistance to this disease in maize genotypes, hypothetically reducing the need for visual disease scoring in the field.
Potentially inappropriate prescribing, is highly prevalent among older patients hospitalized with major psychiatric illness. Inappropriate use of psychotropic medications in elderly patients has become a focus of concern.
To determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing including potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and potential prescription omissions (PPOs), according to STOPP-START, Beers and PRISCUS criteria applied by CheckTheMeds®.
To identify potentially IP, PPo and the prevalence of contraindications, interactions and precautions in older patients hospitalized with major psychiatric illness.
Retrospective cross-sectional study with patients over 65 discharged from the Psychiatric acute unit of the university hospital of La Princesa (Madrid) between January 2013 and October 2015 was conducted. The CheckTheMeds® program was used to identify IP.
A total of 104 elders–74 females and 30 males–were included, with a mean age of 76 years (range: 65–91). An average of 5.73 (range: 1–16) was prescribed drugs at discharge. The Ip results STOPP 81.73% (n = 85), START 43.26% (n = 45), Beers 94.23% (n = 98) y PRISCUS 40.38% (n = 42). Contraindications were described in the 21.15% of the patients, precautions in 83.65% and interactions in 83.65%. Psychotropic drugs were the most often inappropriate prescribed medicaments.
Prescribing omissions are twice as prevalent as IP in the elderly. Currently, inappropriate prescription of psychotropic agents is very common for the elderly. Application of such screening tools to prescribing decisions may reduce unnecessary medication, related adverse events, healthcare utilization and cost and nonpharmacological interventions, should be thoroughly explored.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Obtain and analyze information on treatment guidelines, with particular emphasis on the use of antipsychotics, in patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder I and bipolar disorder II who are treated at a mental health center in a district of Madrid (Spain) under the conditions of habitual clinical practice.
Then, compare with recently published literature.
We performed a descriptive study of a sample of 100 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (type I and type II) at any stage of the disease who receive regular treatment in a mental health center in a district of Madrid. Information regarding the treatment used, especially the use of antipsychotics (either in a single therapy or in combination with other drugs such as mood stabilizers, antidepressants, hypnotics or anxiolytics), was collected retrospectively from the data obtained from the medical record.
Ninety-four percent of patients are taking mood stabilizer treatment (68% lithium, 24% valproate, 1% and 1% carbamazepine and lamotrigine). Four percent take lithium and valproate in combination. Forty-eight percent of patients are taking some antipsychotic (atypical about 90%). Of these, only 10% in injectable form, and 5% take both oral and injectable antipsychotics.
The diminished use of injectable antipsychotics, well below recent publications, draws the attention. You can probably explain this low proportion of injectable medication because we are generally dealing with stable patients with a long-term disorder.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This paper describes the diversity of rodent fauna in an area endemic for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Brazil, the population dynamics and the relationship of rodents with hantavirus in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome. Additionally, an analysis is made of the partial S segment sequences of the hantaviruses obtained from serologically confirmed human HCPS cases and from rodent specimens. Rodents were collected during four campaigns. Human serum samples were collected from suspected cases of HCPS at hospitals in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples antibody-reactive by ELISA were processed by RT–PCR. The PCR product was amplified and sequenced. Hantavirus was detected only in Necromys lasiurus, the wild rodent species most prevalent in the Cerrado biome (min-max: 50–83·7%). All the six human serum samples were hantavirus seropositive and five showed amplified PCR products. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed the circulation of a single genotype, the Araraquara hantavirus. The environmental changes that have occurred in the Cerrado biome in recent decades have favoured N. lasiurus in interspecific competition of habitats, thus increasing the risk of contact between humans and rodent species infected with hantavirus. Our data corroborate the definition of N. lasiurus as the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome.
Galactic winds and outflows are an ubiquitous phenomenon in galaxies with active star formation and/or active nuclei. They constitute the main mechanism for redistributing dust and metals on large scales and are therefore a key ingredient to understand the life cycle of galaxies. Among galaxies, ULIRGs are of particular interest in this context, as they host intense starbursts and are likely to be the dominant star formers at z > 1. These objects have been shown to host important winds, but it is not yet known what is the frequency of galactic winds and their properties in galaxies with lower star formation rates (SFR). We are studying galactic winds in a sample of 21 galaxies with different SFRs (including ULIRGs) from observations with the INTEGRAL fiber spectrograph on the 4.2m WHT. In order to be able to address the complex multi–phase nature of the wind phenomenon, we have used the Na I D doublet absorption lines to trace cold gas, and a few emission lines (Hα, [N ii] and [S ii]) to trace the warmer ionized gas of the wind. The distribution and kinematics of both components in these objects is then analysed. Preliminary results show strong spatial correlation between regions with high non–circular velocities, areas with high star formation activity and regions with two different components in the emission lines. This set of data will help us to characterise the distribution and kinematics of the winds and their relation with the host galaxy type.
This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of different freezing extenders on two lines selected for hyperprolificacy and longevity (H and LP, respectively). In extender A, dimethyl sulphoxide (Me2SO) and sucrose were used as cryoprotectants. In extenders B and C, the sucrose was replaced by 20% egg yolk, and in extender C the Me2SO was substituted by acetamide. Semen was packaged in 0.25 ml plastic straws and cooled at 5°C for 45 min, and then was frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour for 10 min before being plunged into the liquid nitrogen. Thawing was carried out by immersing the straws in a water bath at 50°C for 10 s. Frozen-thawed semen characteristics and reproductive parameters were affected by freezing. Extender C showed significantly lower post-thawing quality traits than any of the three extenders. Acrosome integrity was significantly improved when Me2SO was used as cryoprotectant. Sucrose replacement by 20% egg yolk had no effect on acrosome integrity but provided significantly lower sperm motility and viability. Freezing extender affected fertility rate, total born, number of implantation sites and gestational losses, obtaining better results when extender A was used. The acrosomal integrity after frozen-thawed process showed a significant correlation with fertility at 12th day and also at birth, indicating that an increase in acrosomal integrity leads to an increase in both fertilities (12th day and at birth). A positive correlation between motility of semen and implantation sites was found. The post-thawing quality traits of semen were not affected by the genetic line, although LP line showed higher total born and lower foetal and gestational losses. The findings of this study suggest that freezing extender composition has a significant effect on the success of rabbit sperm for preservation, and when Me2SO was used as permeable cryoprotectant sucrose provided better protection compared with egg yolk and improved reproductive traits, and, on the other hand, the male genotypes used in the present study had no effect on frozen-thawed sperm parameters but negatively affected some of the reproductive parameters.
Convergence in the use of resources may occur between distantly related organisms. A major ecological resource in which members of various taxa may be interested is a cavity for nesting. A variety of social hymenopterans and vertebrates may nest within tree cavities in tropical ecosystems. We used 241 nest-boxes placed in seven Kenyan localities to investigate the use of nesting cavities by members of distant taxa and discuss whether interaction between them is a potential factor shaping cavity-nester communities in tropical regions. The nest-boxes were occupied by social insects (ants, bees and wasps) (30.1% of nest-boxes in April–May and 33.1% in September–October) and vertebrates (birds and mammals) (20% and 7.7%, respectively). Hymenopterans were more abundant in forest boxes (36.2% of nest-boxes occupied in April–May and 37% in September–October), whereas savannas had lower figures (21.7% and 31.3%, respectively). Among vertebrates, most occupants of nest-boxes in savanna were birds (17.8% of nest-boxes occupied vs. 8% in mammals), while mammals predominated in forests (4.9% of the nest-boxes occupied vs. 0.3% in birds). Spatial and temporal patterns of occupation highlight the potential that interaction between distant taxa may have on the access to nesting cavities. More nest-boxes remained unoccupied in forested areas than in savanna areas suggesting that a shorter supply of nesting sites in the savanna may be a source of competition. The simultaneous occupation of a nest-box by two different taxa was exceptional, also supporting the hypothesized inter-taxon competition.
Interventional closure of patent arterial duct has become an accepted alternative to surgical closure. Clinical trial with “Nit-Occlud® PDA-R”.
Methods and results
To assess the safety and efficacy of the device, we performed a prospective clinical study between June, 2009 and December, 2010 in La Paz, Bolivia. In all, 29 – 22 female patients and 7 male patients – out of 59 patients were selected on the basis of inclusion criteria. The procedures were performed under sedation at an age and weight of 5.7 years and 22.7 kilograms, respectively, with 4–6 French arterial sheaths and 5–7 French venous sheaths. The minimal diameter of the duct was 3.5 millimetres. The procedure, fluoroscopy, and hospitalisation times were 96.4 minutes (55 to 145), 13.1 minutes (3 to 25.2), and 24 hours, respectively. The “Nit-Occlud® PDA-R” was successfully deployed in all patients. Immediate, 24-hour, 1-, 3-, and 6-month closure rates were 65.5%, 79.3%, 96.5%, and 100%, respectively. The systolic pulmonary pressure diminished from 37 millimetres of mercury (21 to 57) before the intervention to 31 millimetres of mercury (21 to 45) after the intervention. No early or late embolisation, haemolysis, left pulmonary artery, or descending aorta obstruction occurred.
We conclude that the “Nit-Occlud® PDA-R” device is safe and effective in closing patent arterial duct up to a diameter of 8 millimetres.
A Salmonella agona strain has caused a hospital outbreak of gastroenteritis in a pediatric unit in Rio de Janeiro. It bears two plasmids, a small (6·5 MDa molecular weight) plasmid coding for type B colicin production and a larger one (36 MDa molecular weight) determining resistance to ampicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. The R-plasmid, but not the Col-plasmid, is self-transferable to a Escherichia coli recipient strain. Curing for the R-plasmid was achieved by treatment with 0·05 % SDS followed by incubation at 44°C. It has not been possible to cure the S. agona strain for its Col-plasmid.
From 1979 to August 1987, there have been 178 cases of meningococcal disease in Iquique, Chile, a city of about 140000. The attack rate for the last 5 years has been in excess of 20/100000 per year, more than 20 times greater than for the country overall. The mortality rate was 6%. The disease occurred in patients with ages from 4 months to 60 years, but 89% of cases were in patients <21 years. The largest number of cases were in the age group 5–9 years (n = 54), but the highest incidence occurred in children less than 1 year of age (72·8/100000 per year). The male/female ratio was 1·2. Cases occurred all year round with little seasonal variation. Of the 178 cases, 173 were biologically confirmed. Serogroup analysis of strains from 135 patients revealed A = 1, B = 124, C = 10. Forty-four group B strains from 1985–7 were serotyped: 15:P1.3 = 36, 15:NT = 4, 4:P1.3 = 2, NT:NT = 2. Ten of 11 of the outbreak strains tested were sulfadiazine-resistant. This is the first recognized outbreak caused by a Gp B:15 strain in South America. It shares many of the characteristics of outbreaks caused by closely related strains in Europe, such as a predilection for older children and adolescents, sulfadiazine-resistance, and sustained high attack rates. The Iquique strain (B:15:P1.3) belongs to the same genetic clone (ET-5 complex) as the Norway (B:15:P1.16) and the Cuban (B:4:P1.15) strains.
Significant differences were found between males and females in the fragmocone, external cone and widths of the cuttlebone in Sepia officinalis caught in the small-scale trap fishery off Gran Canaria Island (Spain). It is suggested that: (a) differences may depend on morphological adaptations of females for egg laying; (b) cuttlebones represent over 50% of the total cuttlefish caught (which is unrecorded in the fishery); and (c) the relationships between several morphometric measures of the cuttlebone and the mantle length and wet weight may allow more accurate biomass estimations of this species in the fishery.
We evaluated the influence of the main cereal of the diet and the degree of heat processing of rice on apparent ileal and total tract digestibility of nutrients and ileum morphology of pigs at 37 d of age. Control pigs were fed a complex diet that contained 500 g/kg cooked and flaked maize with a degree of starch gelatinisation (SG) of 840 g/kg. Experimental groups received the same complex diet in which maize was substituted (w/w) by rice with three different degrees of SG; 110, 520 and 760 g/kg that corresponded to raw rice and cooked rice processed under two different set of conditions. The digestibility of dietary components, except for nitrogen, was greater for the cooked rice – than for the raw rice – and the maize diet (P < 0·001). Pigs fed cooked rice had higher villus height to crypt depth ratio (P < 0·001) and greater percentage of zigzag-oriented villi and lesser percentage of tongue-oriented villi (P < 0·01) than pigs fed other diets. Compared with feeding maize, feeding rice improved dietary component digestibility and ileal morphology in piglets. Mild cooking of rice (SG = 520 g/kg) enhanced diet digestibility and ileum morphology. However, processing the rice to increase SG to 760 g/kg did not increase nutrient digestibility further and in fact impaired ileal morphology.
Faecal surveys are commonly used as non-invasive means to evaluate population abundance of animals as well as comparable indexes of prevalence and intensity of diseases between populations, especially macroparasites. While faecal surveys are among one of the simplest means to perform these evaluations, they are time consuming and labour intensive. The present study evaluated 80 red deer (Cervus elaphus) faecal samples collected in two study sites for the presence and abundance of first-stage larvae of the nematode Elaphostrongylus cervi and established pools of samples for epidemiological analysis. The analysis of 20–30 individual samples would produce a reliable estimate of the ‘true’ prevalence, and the error of the smaller sample size only doubled that of the 80 reference samples. The analysis of 5 pools of 5 pellet groups each, or of 4 pools of 10 pellet groups each, provided a reliable estimation of the ‘true’ excretion abundance estimated by the analysis of all 80 samples. These pools comprise a cost-effective and dependable alternative for measuring and obtaining comparable abundances of parasitic faecal excretion stages in red deer populations, which is very valuable for epidemiological and ecological research as well as for management purposes.
Several molecular marker systems have been developed for assessing genetic diversity in crop germplasm collections. A trade-off often exists between the number of loci that can feasibly be sampled by a marker system and the amount of information provided by each locus. We compared the usefulness of two marker systems for revealing genetic diversity and population structure in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and diversity array technology (DArT) markers. DArTs survey many more loci per reaction than do SSRs; however, as bi-allelic, dominant markers, DArTs provide less polymorphism information per locus. Genetic differentiation was assessed in a randomly selected set of 436 cassava accessions, consisting of 155 African and 281 Latin American accessions. A genome-wide set of 36 SSR markers and a DArT array of approximately 1000 polymorphic clones were used to assess genetic diversity and differentiation. Cluster analyses were performed using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). Results were compared with a priori expectations of genetic differentiation based on previous genetic analyses. Analyses of the two datasets generated broadly similar clustering patterns. However, SSRs revealed greater differentiation than DArTs, and more effectively recovered patterns of genetic differentiation observed in previous analyses (differentiation between Latin American and African accessions, and some geographical differentiation within each of these groups). These results suggest that SSR markers, while low throughput in comparison with DArTs, are relatively better at detecting genetic differentiation in cassava germplasm collections. Nonetheless, DArTs will likely prove useful in ‘orphan crop’ species, where alternative molecular markers have not been developed.
We present TCS-CAIN, a NIR survey of the Galactic plane, recently made public at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and some results derived from it: with star counts derived directly the structure of the inner the Milky Way can be dissected, obtaining also estimations for the extinction toward the inner MW.