A 15-month survey of 412 bloodstream yeast isolates from 54 Belgian hospitals was undertaken. Candida albicans was the most common species (47·3%) followed by C. glabrata (25·7%), C. parapsilosis (8·0%), C. tropicalis (6·8%) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (5·1%). Common predisposing factors were antibacterial therapy (45%), hospitalization in intensive care units (34%), presence of in-dwelling catheters (32%), underlying cancer (23%) and major surgery (11%). Most patients had more than one predisposing factor. Fluconazole alone or in combination with another antifungal agent was the treatment of choice for 86·6% of the cases. Susceptibility testing revealed that 93·5% were susceptible to amphotericin B, 39·6% to itraconazole, 42·8% to fluconazole and 87% to voriconazole. Resistance to azoles was more common among C. glabrata isolates.