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The drag force on a sphere in tangential and normal motion to a plane wall is evaluated in the limit of large Knudsen number and small Mach (and Strouhal) number assuming isothermal conditions and diffuse reflection of gas molecules on walls. In the limit of free molecular flow, the molecular distribution function of the gas is evaluated using a set of coupled Fredholm integral equations. The results are compared with direct simulation Monte Carlo calculations and extended for finite Knudsen numbers. In all cases stronger dependence of the force on the width of the gap is found for normal compared to tangential motion. When the flow within the gap can be considered as essentially collisionless in nature, a similar dependence of the force on the gap width is observed at finite Knudsen numbers as in the free molecular case.
The eastern Arabian Sea is influenced by both the advection of upwelled water from the western Arabian Sea and winter convective mixing. Therefore, sediments collected from the eastern Arabian Sea can help to understand the long-term seasonal hydrographic changes. We used the planktonic foraminifera census and stable isotopic ratio (δ18O) from sediments drilled during the International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 355 to reconstruct surface hydrographic changes in the eastern Arabian Sea during the last 350 kyr. The increased abundance of Globigerina bulloides suggests enhanced advection of upwelled water during the latter half of MIS7 and the beginning of MIS6, as a result of a strengthened summer monsoon. A large drop in upwelling and/or advection of upwelled water from the western Arabian Sea is inferred during the subsequent interval of MIS6, based on the rare presence of G. bulloides. The comparable relative abundance of Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, G. bulloides and Globigerinoides ruber suggests that during the early part of MIS5, hydrographic conditions were similar to today. The upwelling decreased and winter convection increased with the progress of the glacial interval. A good coherence between planktonic foraminiferal assemblage-based monsoon stacks from both the eastern and western Arabian Sea suggests a coeval response of the entire northern Arabian Sea to the glacial–interglacial changes. The glacial–interglacial difference in δ18Osw-ivc was at a maximum with 4–5 psu change in salinity during Termination 2 and 3, and a minimum during Termination 4. The significantly reduced regional contribution to the glacial–interglacial change in δ18Osw-ivc during Termination 4 suggests a lesser change in the monsoon.
A novel flexible radio frequency (RF) sensor is designed to facilitate the accurate testing of various samples used in the biomedical industry at the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) frequency band. The proposed RF biosensor comprises a liquid channel-loaded interdigitated capacitor, which is integrated on a coplanar waveguide structure. The prototype of the sensor is fabricated on a 0.13 mm thin biodegradable polyethylene terephthalate polyester film to perform the testing of various bio-graded samples by recording the corresponding resonant frequency. It is observed that there is a noticeable change between the measured resonant frequencies of these samples, which primarily occurs due to the difference in their dielectric properties. The designed sensor was used to monitor and investigate the quality of glycerol, which is the most commonly used raw ingredient in the biomedical and food industry. The determination of glucose concentration in base fluids is considered to ease the challenges faced by doctors and biochemists regarding the monitoring of glucose concentration. It is found that the proposed sensor can quantify the glycerol purity up to the minimum specified adulteration level of 2 and 1% corresponding to toxic contaminants diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol, respectively, and the glucose concentration of 0.5 mg/ml.
National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) data have shown that nearly half of all malaria deaths in India occur in tribal-dominated areas. The present study took a qualitative approach to understanding community perceptions and practices related to malarial infection and anti-malarial programmes. Twelve focus group discussions and 26 in-depth interviews of Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) were conducted in nine villages in the district of Gadchiroli, Maharashtra state in India in June 2016. A total of 161 village residents (94 males and 67 females) participated in the focus group discussions and 26 health workers participated in the in-depth interviews. Data were analysed using the content analysis approach. The findings revealed widespread misconceptions about malaria among village residents, and low use of preventive measures and anti-malarial services. Ignorance and treatment by unqualified traditional healers delay effective treatment seeking. Furthermore, failure to maintain drug compliance adds to the gravity of the problem. The study identified the social and behavioural factors affecting treatment uptake and use of treatment facilities in the study area. These should help the development of the behavioural change communication arm of any control strategy for malaria through improving community participation, so improving preventive practices and optimizing utilization of anti-malarial services.
Transition metal dichalcogenides are 2D structures with remarkable electronic, chemical, optical and mechanical properties. Monolayer and crystal properties of these structures have been extensively investigated, but a detailed understanding of the properties of their few-layer structures are still missing. In this work we investigated the mechanical differences between monolayer and multilayer WSe2 and MoSe2, through fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations (MD). It was observed that single layer WSe2/MoSe2 deposited on silicon substrates have larger friction coefficients than 2, 3 and 4 layered structures. For all considered cases it is always easier to peel off and/or to fracture MoSe2 structures. These results suggest that the interactions between first layer and substrate are stronger than interlayer interactions themselves. Similar findings have been reported for other nanomaterials and it has been speculated whether this is a universal-like behavior for 2D layered materials. We have also analyzed fracture patterns. Our results show that fracture is chirality dependent with crack propagation preferentially perpendicular to W(Mo)-Se bonds and faster for zig-zag-like defects.
The present problem deals with the study of gravitational (Jeans) instability of magnetized, rotating, anisotropic plasmas considering quantum effects. The basic equations of the considered system are constructed using combined Chew–Goldberger–Low (CGL) fluid model and quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) fluid model. A dispersion relation is obtained using the normal mode technique which is discussed for transverse and longitudinal modes of propagation. It is found that a rotating quantum plasma influences the gravitational mode in transverse propagation but not in longitudinal propagation. The presence of rotation decreases the critical wavenumber and it has a stabilizing effect on the Jeans instability criterion of magnetized quantum plasma in transverse propagation. The firehose instability is unaffected due to the presence of uniform rotation and quantum corrections. We observe from the numerical analysis that region of instability and critical Jeans wavenumber are both decreased due to the presence of uniform rotation. The stabilizing influence of uniform rotation is observed for magnetized, rotating, anisotropic plasmas in the presence of quantum correction. In the case of a longitudinal mode of propagation we found the Jeans instability criterion is not affected by rotation. The quantum diffraction term has a stabilizing effect on the growth rate of the Jeans instability when the wave propagates along the direction of the magnetic field.
The Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics (ACAP) co-ordinates the activities of the six Australian research institutions and a group of industrial partners in the Australia-US Institute for Advanced Photovoltaics (AUSIAPV) to develop the next generations of photovoltaic device technology and to provide a pipeline of opportunities for performance increase and cost reduction. AUSIAPV links ACAP with US-based partners. These national and international research collaborations provide a pathway for highly visible, structured photovoltaic research collaboration between Australian and US researchers, institutes and agencies with significant joint programs based on the clear synergies between the participating organizations. The research program is organized in five collaborative Program Packages (PPs). PP1 deals with silicon wafer-based cells, focusing on three main areas: cells from solar grade silicon, rear contact and silicon-based tandem cells. PP2 involves research into a range of organic solar cells, organic/inorganic hybrid cells, "earth abundant" thin-film materials and "third generation" approaches. PP3 is concerned with optics and characterization. PP4 will deliver a substantiated methodology for assessing manufacturing costs of the different technologies and PP5 involves education, training and outreach. The main research topics, results and plans for the future are presented.
Necrotising otitis externa, which is typically seen in elderly diabetics, is a severe infective disorder caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There is lack of standard management policy for necrotising otitis externa, hence this study attempted to frame a protocol for management based on clinical parameters.
A retrospective study of 27 patients with necrotising otitis externa was conducted over 6 years in a tertiary care hospital. Data were analysed with regards to demographic characteristics, clinical features, investigations, staging and treatment modalities.
Out of 27 patients, 26 were diabetics. The commonest organism isolated was P aeruginosa, which was sensitive to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. Nine patients had cranial nerve involvement. Twelve of 15 patients treated with medical therapy recovered, as did 11 of 12 patients that underwent surgery.
A high index of suspicion, early diagnosis and prompt intervention are key factors to decrease morbidity and mortality. Fluoroquinolones, third generation cephalosporins and surgical debridement are the mainstay of treatment.
We have investigated, using density functional simulations, the energetics and the electronic properties of oxides of selected transition metals, TMs, adsorbed onto a dia-mond (001) surface. We find that stoichiometric oxides of TMs, particularly Ti and Zn,influence the electron affinity of diamond strongly. The electron affinities of stoichiomet-ric oxides of Ti and Zn are calculated to be around −3 eV, significantly higher than 1.9 eV of commonly used H–termination. The reactions of TMs with an oxygenated diamond are found to be highly exothermic. Based upon the energetics and the electronic properties, we propose that in the regime of ultra thin films, oxides of TMs are promising options for surface coating of diamond–based electron emitters, as these coatings are compatible with semiconductor device fabrication processes, while having the benefit of inducing a large negative electron affinity.
The output power-density and the efficiency of thermo-tunnel devices are examinedas a function of inter-electrode separation, electrode work-function, and temperature. We find that these physical parameters dramatically influence the device characteristics, and under optimal conditions a thermo-tunnel device is capable of delivering a very high output power-density of ∼ 103Wcm−2. In addition, at higher temperatures, the heat-conversion efficiency of the thermo-tunnel device approaches ∼ 10%, comparable to that of a thermoelectric generator. We therefore propose that thermo-tunnel devices are promising for solid-state thermal energy conversion.
Radio frequency (RF) and microwave amplifier research has been largely focused on solid-state technology in recent years. This paper presents design and performance characterization of a 50-kW modular solid-state amplifier, operating at 505.8 MHz. It includes architecture selection and design procedures based on circuit and EM simulations for its building blocks like solid-state amplifier modules, combiners, dividers, and directional couplers. Key performance objectives such as efficiency, return loss, and amplitude/phase imbalance are discussed for this amplifier for real-time operation. This amplifier is serving as the state-of-the-art RF source in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source. Characterization on component level as well as system level of this amplifier serves useful data for RF designers working in communication and particle accelerator fields.
In this work, local AFM oxidation technique in a controlled humidity environment has been used to create small features in strained SiGe alloys. When directly oxidizing SiGe alloys, minimum line widths of 20nm were achieved by adjusting parameters such as the bias voltage on the microscope tip and the tip writing speed. It was found that when bias voltage increases, and/or when the tip writing speed decreases, the oxidation height of silicon-germanium increases. In contrast to conventional thermal oxidation, the oxide height on SiGe alloys is slightly less than that on Si. Finally, this method was used to successfully cut conducting SiGe quantum well lines with high resolution.
Micro-Raman spectroscopic investigations of arsenic-implanted silicon show lines characteristic of silicon crystallites even at implant doses above the amorphization threshold. The intensity and frequency of occurrence of the lines increase with the implanted dose. Polarization/orientation Raman studies indicate the crystallites are silicon in the hexagonal phase (Si-IV) and silicon in the diamond phase (Si-I). The latter are oriented differently than the substrate silicon. Monte Carlo simulations of the arsenic ion energy loss and published molecular dynamics studies suggest that each arsenic ion deposits sufficient energy to locally melt the silicon lattice. This is taken as the basis of the present attempt to explain the origin of the crystallites. A one-dimensional numerical model is developed to determine the time scale for the liquid silicon to solidify. The effect of amorphous silicon on the solidification is also investigated.
We discuss a modified self-aligned silicide (salicide) process that uses a silicon cap to reduce the substrate silicon consumption by 50% as compared with a conventional salicide process. We have used a metal-silicon mixture to form the metal-rich phase reliably in the first anneal. After etching the unreacted mixture we deposit a silicon cap. This forces the metal to react with the silicon cap as well as with the substrate during the second anneal, thus minimizing silicon consumption from the substrate. The unreacted portion of the silicon cap is selectively etched, leaving a structure with a raised source and drain. We expect this process to be useful for forming silicide on shallow junctions and thin SOI films, where silicon consumption is constrained.
Excellent quality epitaxial and textured superconducting HoBa2Cu307.x (Ho 123) thin films have been fabricated on lattice matched (100) KTaO3 and (100) LaAlO3, and lattice mismatched (100) MgO substrates by the pulsed laser evaporation (PLE) technique. A bulk Hol23 target was evaporated using nanosecond excimer laser pulses with the evaporating material depositing on a substrate maintained in the temperature range of 550‐650°C. The temperature for zero resistance for HoBa2Cu3O7_x films deposited on various substrates at 650°C varied between 85 to 89K. The epitaxial films deposited on (100) LaA103 substrates exhibited critical current densities greater than 3.5 x 106 Amps/cm2 at 77 K. The superconducting properties of the Ho 123 films were found to be similar to Y123 films.
We have performed transport critical current density, Jc, measurements on epitaxial superconducting thin films which were in‐situ patterned during the laser deposition process. Shadow masks of various dimensions were placed close to the substrate to generate different patterns. Epitaxial films of YBa2Cu3O7 on (100) SrTiO3, (100) YSZ, and (100) LaA1O3 substrates were fabricated at low processing temperatures (500‐650°Q by the biased laser deposition technique in an oxygen ambient of 200 mtorr. Excellent quality superconducting thin films were formed on patterned areas. The critical temperature of the films was found to be in the range of 88 to 90 K, and the best critical current density values (at 77K, and zero magnetic field) greater than 6.5 x106 Amps/cm2 were obtained for silver doped YBa2Cu3O7 films on (100)LaAlO3 substrates.
We report in‐situ fabrication of c‐axis textured YBa2Cu3O7‐x superconducting thin films with Tco > 77K on unbuffered silicon substrates by the biased pulsed laser evaporation (PLE) technique in the temperature range of 550‐650°C. At substrate temperatures below 550°C, no c‐axis texturing of the superconducting film was observed. The YBa2Cu3O7‐x superconducting films were fabricated by ablating a bulk YBa2Cu3O7 target by a XeCl excimer laser (λ = 308 nm, τ = 45 × 10‐9 sec) in a chamber maintained at an oxygen pressure of 0.2 torr . The thickness of the films was varied from 0.3 to 0.5 nm depending on the number of laser pulses. Extensive diffusion was observed in thin films deposited at substrate temperatures above 550°C. However, microstructurally, with increase in the substrate temperature the films exhibited larger grain size and greater degree of c‐axis texturing (measured by the ratio of the (005) and (110) X‐ray diffraction peaks). This was found to give rise to better superconducting properties with Tco exceeding 77 K for YBa2Cu3O7‐x films deposited on Si substrates at 650°C.
The formation of superconducting thin films on lanthanum aluminate substrates is very important for high‐frequency applications. In this paper, we discuss the fabrication of epitaxial superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 thin films on (100)LaAlO3 substrates, which exhibit excellent dielectric properties required for high frequency applications. The films were deposited by the biased pulsed laser evaporation technique (PLE) at substrate temperatures between 500‐650°C and exhibit excellent crystallinity with best minimum ion channeling yields corresponding to approximately 3%. The superconducting transition temperatures varied from 88‐92 K with critical current densities at 77K and zero magnetic field greater than 4 ‐ 5 x 106 Amps/cm2.