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A series of cobalt-doped barium titanate crystals were grown that have high
beam-coupling gain. Our photorefractive characterization shows that with
increasing cobalt concentration in the crystal a deep level is formed and
the relative effect of shallow levels on the space-charge field amplitude
diminishes. This gives the crystal a long dark storage time. We find that
cobalt-doping in barium titanate increases the two-beam coupling gain by
reducing the dark conductivity and increasing the total effective trap