Thirteen hard red winter wheat cultivars were evaluated for their ability to suppress summer annual weeds in grain production systems near North Platte, NE, from 1993 through 1997. ‘Turkey’, a 125-yr-old landrace selection, suppressed both broadleaf and grass weeds more than other cultivars. Some relatively new cultivars, such as ‘Arapahoe’, ‘Jules’, ‘Pronghorn’, and ‘Vista’ suppressed summer annual grasses almost as well as Turkey. Total weed density was negatively correlated with number of winter wheat stems/m2, mature winter wheat height, and lodging. Weed density after wheat harvest was positively correlated with delay in winter wheat seeding date and was negatively correlated with precipitation 0 to 30 d after winter wheat seeding, during tillering, tillering to boot stage, and heading to maturity stage. Mean air temperature 0 to 30 d after wheat seeding was positively correlated with weed density. In the spring, weed density was positively correlated with temperatures during the tillering stage, tillering to boot stage, and heading to maturity stage. Stinkgrass and witchgrass densities were positively correlated with severity of wheat leaf rust. The highest grain-producing cultivars included three medium height cultivars ‘Alliance’, Arapahoe, and ‘Niobrara’. Alliance wheat produced 53% more grain than Turkey, and the other two produced 43% more grain.