Gold-bearing sandstone and conglomerate near the base of the Proterozoic Mporokoso Group were deposited in a braided river system. The detrital sand grade material is mainly of quartz, sericite and haematite, and the pebbles are of vein-quartz, chert, silicic volcanics, quartzose metasediment and jaspilite. The basement rocks presently exposed in the basement are silicic igneous rocks and quartzose metasediments.
The petrography of the fluvial sediments suggests that silica and, to a lesser extent, iron oxide were mobile both in the source-area and in the braided river system. Evidence for silica-mobility includes jaspilite pebbles with spherulites and glaebules of chalcedony, abundant vein-quartz pebbles, intra-basinal sandstone pebbles, and the silicification of volcanic pebbles. The detrital haematite in the fluvial sandstone forms pseudomorphs after magmatic magnetite. Authigenic iron oxide occurs in several forms which suggest that iron oxide was mobile in the source-area and in the fluvial sediments. Uranium is locally abundant in basement and sedimentary rocks, cassiterite is a common heavy mineral in the fluvial sediments, and fluorite has been found in the basement.
These features may be explained by intense weathering which mobilized both silica and iron. The silica was concentrated near the surface to form silcretes in the basement and later in the overlying fluvial sediments. Hydrothermal convection cells driven by the granites may have carried silica, iron, tin, fluorine and uranium towards the surface before and during the erosion of the igneous basement.