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We examined associations between specific self-regulatory mechanisms and externalizing behavior patterns from ages 2 to 15 (N = 443). The relation between multiple self-regulatory indicators across multiple domains (i.e., physiological, attentional, emotional, and behavioral) at age 2 and at age 5 and group membership in four distinct externalizing trajectories was examined. By examining each of these self-regulatory processes in combination with one another, and therefore accounting for their shared variance, we aimed to better understand which specific self-regulatory skills were associated most strongly with externalizing behavioral patterns. Findings suggest that behavioral inhibitory control and emotion regulation are particularly important in distinguishing between children who show normative declines in externalizing behaviors across early childhood and those who demonstrate high levels through adolescence.
This article describes the collection of views from political science alumni via a web-based survey as a central part of efforts to review and improve the curriculum and the broader political science program at a public university. Based on the literature and on interviews with faculty members and former students, we iteratively constructed a questionnaire containing five categories of items: program structure, content/knowledge, skills, outcomes, and learning environment. These categories were intended to capture curricular elements and outcomes that include but extend beyond employment and professional-skill attainment. Graduate students contributed in meaningful ways to the effort through a research-methods course. The article discusses how results of the survey fed into the curriculum-revision process specifically and program review and assessment considerations more generally.
Whether internalizing symptoms increase or remain at similar levels throughout childhood is currently not well understood. Moreover, the association between vagal regulation of cardiac activity and internalizing symptoms across childhood needs to be clarified. We used a multilevel conceptual framework to examine how children's vagal regulation of cardiac activity and mothers' internalizing symptoms were jointly associated with children's developmental trajectories of internalizing symptoms from ages 4 to 10 years old. Data came from 384 children who participated in an ongoing longitudinal study. Children and their mothers came to the research laboratory at ages 4, 5, 7, and 10. Mothers reported their children's and their own internalizing symptoms. Children's vagal regulation of cardiac activity was assessed during quiet baseline tasks and during challenge tasks. Multilevel models revealed that child internalizing symptoms increased from ages 4 to 10 years old, but only in females, and especially between ages 7 and 10. More vagal withdrawal in response to challenge was associated with more internalizing symptoms, particularly with more somatic symptoms. Associations between children's physiological regulation and internalizing symptoms differed by children's age, sex, and presence of maternal internalizing symptoms. Understanding associations between vagal regulation of cardiac activity and internalizing symptoms during childhood calls for fine-grained developmental analyses that take into account the heterogeneity of internalizing symptoms, as well as developmental phase, context, and gender.
In the 20th century a little regulated and rapidly growing labour market was transformed following the depression of the 1890s and Federation in 1901. This chapter focuses on four key aspects of the development of the Australian labour market since Federation. First are the patterns in the total labour supply as influenced by population increase, participation, hours of work and trends in labour-force composition. Second is the growth in workforce skills, as represented by the changing role and place of education, including vocational training. Third is the evolution of Australia's distinctive pattern of industrial relations, including the structure of wages. Fourth are the trends and fluctuations in average wages and unemployment. A resurgence of productivity from the microeconomic reform era of the 1980s and 1990s was dissipating by the second decade of the 21st century and was being seen as the dominant concern for future policy.
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important storage root crop with largely unexplored and unexplained potentially valuable genetic variability. Genetic variability is important in selecting suitable genotypes for crop improvement. The present study was aimed at assessing the extent of variability in cassava storage root bulking, based on fresh storage root yield accumulated over time. Twelve cassava genotypes were evaluated in a randomized complete block design at three contrasting locations in Uganda. Assessments were done from 5 to 13 months after planting at intervals of 2 months. Genotype, harvest time, location and their interactions were significantly different for fresh storage root yield and most of the other traits assessed. Estimates of variance components revealed that a large portion of the phenotypic variance was accounted for by the genotypic component for all traits assessed indicative of substantial genetic variability among the genotypes evaluated. This genetic variability is important in a hybridization and/or selection programme because it implies that significant genetic gain through phenotypic selection is possible for the traits assessed. Fresh storage root yield was positively and significantly correlated with storage root girth, harvest index, shoot mass and storage root number. The information generated will inform future breeding initiatives to develop early-bulking cassava genotypes with farmer-preferred traits in Uganda.
In this study, genetic diversity in 340 finger millet accessions from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda and 15 minicore accessions was assessed using 23 single-sequence repeat markers and five qualitative traits. Nineteen markers were polymorphic with a mean polymorphic information content value of 0.606 and a range of 0.035–0.889, with allele size ranging from 148 to 478. A total of 195 alleles were detected (range of 3–23 and average of 10.3 alleles per locus), with 57.7% being rare and 17.4% being private. Differentiation between the accessions of the three countries was weak, with most of the genetic diversity being explained by variability within the countries and subregions than by that among the countries and subregions. The highest genetic diversity was observed in the Kenyan accessions (0.638 ± 0.283) and the least in the Ugandan accessions (0.583 ± 0.264). The highest differentiation based on Wright's fixation index was observed between the Ugandan and Tanzanian accessions (FST= 0.117; P< 0.001). There was no association between the morphological traits assessed and the genetic classes observed. The low variability between the countries could be attributed to a shared gene pool, as the crop originated from the East African region. Farmers' selection for adaptation and end use could have contributed to the high diversity within the countries. Concerted efforts need to be made to characterize the large germplasm stocks in East Africa for their effective conservation and utilization. The lack of representation of accessions from the three countries in all global minicore diversity clusters points to the need to explore the East African germplasm to identify the diversity not captured earlier to be included in the global repository.
Central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction is a prominent feature of the functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, the neurobiological and cognitive consequences of key pathophysiological features of IBS, such as stress-induced changes in hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning, is unknown. Our aim was to determine whether IBS is associated with cognitive impairment, independently of psychiatric co-morbidity, and whether cognitive performance is related to HPA-axis function.
A cross-sectional sample of 39 patients with IBS, a disease control group of 18 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) in clinical remission and 40 healthy age- and IQ-matched control participants were assessed using the Paired Associates Learning (PAL), Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shift (IED) and Spatial Working Memory (SWM) tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and a computerized Stroop test. HPA-axis function was determined by measuring the cortisol awakening response (CAR).
IBS patients exhibited a subtle visuospatial memory deficit at the PAL six- pattern stage (p = 0.03), which remained after psychiatric co-morbidity was controlled for (p = 0.04). Morning cortisol levels were lower in IBS (p = 0.04) and significantly associated with visuospatial memory performance within IBS only (p = 0.02).
For the first time, altered cognitive function on a hippocampal-mediated test of visuospatial memory, which was related to cortisol levels and independent of psychiatric co-morbidity, has been identified in IBS. Visuospatial memory impairment may be a common, but currently neglected, component of IBS. Further elucidation of the nature of this impairment may lead to a greater understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of IBS, and may provide novel therapeutic approaches.
The genetic and biochemical basis of ampicillin resistance amongst the aerobic Gram-negative commensal faecal flora of healthy volunteers in South Africa has been determined. Amongst 608 ampicillin resistant strains isolated from 320 of the participants, 158 were able to transfer their ampicillin resistant determinants into Escheriehia coli K-12 J62–2. Iso-electric focusing of the β-lactamases, extracted from the transconjugants, demonstrated that ampicillin resistance resulted from the presence of the TEM-1, TEM-2 and SHV-1 β-lactamases in 94·3%, 2·5% and 3·2% of isolates respectively. Endonuclease restriction digests of the plasmids isolated from the transconjugants showed that the β-lactamase genes were present on a wide variety of plasmid types; 101 distinct plasmid endonuclease restriction patterns were identified. Transferable ampicillin resistance was associated with resistance to other antibiotics at the following frequencies: trimethoprim (48·7 %), streptomycin (35·4 %), tetracycline (27·2%), spectinomycin (9·5%), chloramphenicol (3·2%) and gentamicin (1·3%). One antibiotic resistance pattern, ampicillin and trimethoprim. predominated (28%). In total. 77·9% of the plasmids conferred resistance to other antibiotics raising the possibility that use of any of these agents, not simply ampicillin, may contribute to the maintenance of resistance genes.
Between January and March 1992, 361 faecal specimens were collected from the healthy black population in the Transvaal Province of South Africa. Each specimen was examined for the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in commensal bacteria. Volunteers, from both rural and urban dwellings, were divided into four age groups. The overall carriage rate of resistance varied from 88.6% for ampicillin, 74.2% for trimethoprim, 52.6% for chloramphenicol, 10.2% for nalidixic acid to 7.5% for gentamicin. The carriage of resistance found to each individual antimicrobial agent was slightly higher in the rural population rather than the urban population but there was no correlation between the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and the age group.
The mouse t complex on chromosome 17 is known to harbour many genes which have an important role in spermatogenesis. One of these, Tcp-1 has been cloned and shown to code for a protein probably essential for acrosome formation. During the isolation of a cDNA for Tcp-1 two other homologous sequences were recognized and described as Tcp-1x and Tcp-1y. In this paper we describe the isolation of a cDNA which has been shown by in situ hybridization to correspond to the Tcp-1x gene. Sequence analysis has confirmed that a 140 bp region of homology between Tcp-1 and Tcp-1x lies in the 3′ portion of both genes. Northern blotting has revealed that the Tcp-1x gene is expressed abundantly in liver where two transcripts are detectable and hybrid selection shows that the gene codes for a 37 kDa protein. A search of the DNA databases has failed to find any significant homology between Tcp-1x and any other sequences apart from Tcp-1.
Improved management of mental illness and substance misuse comorbidity is a National Health Service priority, but little is known about its prevalence and current management.
To measure the prevalence of comorbidity among patients of community mental health teams (CMHTs) and substance misuse services, and to assess the potential for joint management.
Cross-sectional prevalence survey in four urban UK centres.
Of CMHT patients, 44% (95% CI 38.1-49.9) reported past-year problem drug use and/or harmful alcohol use; 75% (95% CI 68.2-80.2) of drug service and 85% of alcohol service patients (95% CI 74.2-931) had a past-year psychiatric disorder. Most comorbidity patients appear ineligible for cross-referral between services. Large proportions are not identified by services and receive no specialist intervention.
Comorbidity is highly prevalent in CMHT, drug and alcohol treatment populations, but may be difficult to manage by cross-referral psychiatric and substance misuse services as currently configured and resourced.
Thirty-nine strains of Salmonella typhi, isolated in 1995 from four Districts in Pakistan,
Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Kharian and Jehlem, were catalogued and examined. Chromosomal
DNA from each isolate was digested with XbaI restriction endonuclease and subjected to
pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Three clonal variants comprising of 17–19 DNA fragments
were identified. Antibiotic susceptibility testing identified that 37 of the S. typhi were resistant
to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim and ampicillin. These antibiotic resistance genes were found
to be located on one of four plasmids belonging to incompatibility group IncHI1 and ranging
in size from 150–175 Kb. The genes responsible for this resistance in each case were the
chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) type I, the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) type VII
and the β-lactamase TEM-1 respectively.
We have previously shown that the neurovascular anatomy and length
long head of biceps femoris
(LHBF) is suitable for its possible use in the creation of a dynamic perianal
myoplasty to restore faecal
continence. If intramuscular arterioarterial anastomoses exist between
muscle's vascular pedicles then the
delay procedure, i.e. ligating the vascular pedicles to the transposed
the muscle, 4–6 wk before
transposition, can be used to improve blood flow to the distal part of
transposed muscle. The
intramuscular arterial anatomy of 20 biceps femoris muscles was shown by
dissection (14) or
radiographically (6). The mean entry point of the upper major vascular
to the LHBF was 12 cm
(s.d. 3.3) and the mean length of the LHBF was 36.8 cm (s.d. 1.8). Therefore
ratio between upper
major vascular pedicle entry point and muscle length in 95% of specimens
0.33 (0.2). In the present
study intramuscular arterioarterial anastomoses were found between the
pedicles to the non-transposed and transposed sections of the LHBF and
the long and short heads of this muscle.
Using the delay procedure would therefore theoretically allow the intramuscular
between the arterial pedicle to the nontransposed and transposed sections
the LHBF to open up
enhancing blood flow to the distal part of the myoplasty.
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