To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Cerebral palsy (CP) affects between 2 and 3 per 1000 live births and is thought to be the most common cause of serious physical disability in childhood. A widely used topographical classification of CP has been formulated by the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe group. This divides CP into spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic subtypes. Children with CP due to central nervous system (CNS) malformation, infection, and gray matter damage were more likely to have epilepsy than those with CP due to white matter damage. The predominant type is focal seizures or focal seizures evolving into secondary generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures. The majority of CP etiologies can be established based on a detailed history, examination, and neuroimaging without the need for other investigations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice. Epilepsy surgery can have a good outcome particularly for children with hemiplegia.
This chapter discusses the demographic data, pathological characteristics and pathophysiological mechanisms of epilepsy in Cavernous malformations (CMs). It presents genetic aspects, clinical features, diagnostic tools and therapeutic options for CMs. CMs are characterized by low-flow sinusoidal vessels lined by thin endothelial walls with no obvious feeding arteries or venous drainage. For an optimal therapeutic approach it is mandatory to understand the epilepsy inducing mechanisms associated with CMs. Numerous studies of magnetoencephalography (MEG) in medically intractable epilepsy have shown that MEG can detect interictal and ictal epileptiform activity. The role in diagnosis and the history of imaging techniques such as cerebral angiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as the radiological characteristics of CM have been extensively reviewed in recent literature. The optimal management of CMs presenting with epileptic seizures is still a matter of debate.