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The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a planned large radio interferometer designed to operate over a wide range of frequencies, and with an order of magnitude greater sensitivity and survey speed than any current radio telescope. The SKA will address many important topics in astronomy, ranging from planet formation to distant galaxies. However, in this work, we consider the perspective of the SKA as a facility for studying physics. We review four areas in which the SKA is expected to make major contributions to our understanding of fundamental physics: cosmic dawn and reionisation; gravity and gravitational radiation; cosmology and dark energy; and dark matter and astroparticle physics. These discussions demonstrate that the SKA will be a spectacular physics machine, which will provide many new breakthroughs and novel insights on matter, energy, and spacetime.
Epidemiological studies indicate that individuals with one type of mental disorder have an increased risk of subsequently developing other types of mental disorders. This study aimed to undertake a comprehensive analysis of pair-wise lifetime comorbidity across a range of common mental disorders based on a diverse range of population-based surveys.
The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys assessed 145 990 adult respondents from 27 countries. Based on retrospectively-reported age-of-onset for 24 DSM-IV mental disorders, associations were examined between all 548 logically possible temporally-ordered disorder pairs. Overall and time-dependent hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Absolute risks were estimated using the product-limit method. Estimates were generated separately for men and women.
Each prior lifetime mental disorder was associated with an increased risk of subsequent first onset of each other disorder. The median HR was 12.1 (mean = 14.4; range 5.2–110.8, interquartile range = 6.0–19.4). The HRs were most prominent between closely-related mental disorder types and in the first 1–2 years after the onset of the prior disorder. Although HRs declined with time since prior disorder, significantly elevated risk of subsequent comorbidity persisted for at least 15 years. Appreciable absolute risks of secondary disorders were found over time for many pairs.
Survey data from a range of sites confirms that comorbidity between mental disorders is common. Understanding the risks of temporally secondary disorders may help design practical programs for primary prevention of secondary disorders.
The present work aims to explore the mechanism of action of C-cinnamoyl glycoside as an antifilarial agent against the bovine filarial nematode Setaria cervi. Both apoptosis and autophagy programmed cell death pathways play a significant role in parasitic death. The generation of reactive oxygen species, alteration of the level of antioxidant components and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential may be the causative factors that drive the parasitic death. Monitoring of autophagic flux via the formation of autophagosome and autophagolysosome was detected via CYTO ID dye. The expression profiling of both apoptotic and autophagic marker proteins strongly support the initial findings of these two cell death processes. The increased interaction of pro-autophagic protein Beclin1 with BCL-2 may promote apoptotic pathway by suppressing anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2 from its function. This in turn partially restrains the autophagic pathway by engaging Beclin1 in the complex. But overall positive increment in autophagic flux was observed. Dynamic interaction and regulative balance of these two critical cellular pathways play a decisive role in controlling disease pathogenesis. Therefore, the present experimental work may prosper the chance for C-cinnamoyl glycosides to become a potential antifilarial therapeutic in the upcoming day after detail in vivo study and proper clinical trial.
National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) data have shown that nearly half of all malaria deaths in India occur in tribal-dominated areas. The present study took a qualitative approach to understanding community perceptions and practices related to malarial infection and anti-malarial programmes. Twelve focus group discussions and 26 in-depth interviews of Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) were conducted in nine villages in the district of Gadchiroli, Maharashtra state in India in June 2016. A total of 161 village residents (94 males and 67 females) participated in the focus group discussions and 26 health workers participated in the in-depth interviews. Data were analysed using the content analysis approach. The findings revealed widespread misconceptions about malaria among village residents, and low use of preventive measures and anti-malarial services. Ignorance and treatment by unqualified traditional healers delay effective treatment seeking. Furthermore, failure to maintain drug compliance adds to the gravity of the problem. The study identified the social and behavioural factors affecting treatment uptake and use of treatment facilities in the study area. These should help the development of the behavioural change communication arm of any control strategy for malaria through improving community participation, so improving preventive practices and optimizing utilization of anti-malarial services.
Agriculture in the Central Himalayan Region depends on the availability of suitable germplasm as well as natural conditions. Due to extreme weather conditions, food and nutrition security is a major issue for communities inhabiting these remote and inaccessible areas. Millets are common crops grown in these areas. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv) is an important crop and forms a considerable part of the diet in this region. The aim of the present study was to explore, collect, conserve and evaluate the untapped genetic diversity of foxtail millet at the molecular level and discover variability in their nutritional traits. A total of 30 accessions having unique traits of agronomic importance were collected and molecular profiling was performed. A total of 63 alleles were generated with an average of 2.52 alleles per locus and average expected heterozygosity of 0.37 ± 0.231. Significant genetic variability was revealed through the genetic differentiation (Fst) and gene flow (Nm) values. Structure-based analysis divided whole germplasm into three sub-groups. Rich variability was found in nutritional traits such as dietary fibre in husked grains, carbohydrate, protein, lysine and thiamine content. The collected germplasm may be useful for developing nutritionally rich and agronomically beneficial varieties of foxtail millet and also designing strategies for utilization of unexploited genetic diversity for food and nutrition security in this and other similar agro-ecological regions.
Although there is robust evidence linking childhood adversities (CAs) and an increased risk for psychotic experiences (PEs), little is known about whether these associations vary across the life-course and whether mental disorders that emerge prior to PEs explain these associations.
We assessed CAs, PEs and DSM-IV mental disorders in 23 998 adults in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to investigate the associations between CAs and PEs, and the influence of mental disorders on these associations using multivariate logistic models.
Exposure to CAs was common, and those who experienced any CAs had increased odds of later PEs [odds ratio (OR) 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9–2.6]. CAs reflecting maladaptive family functioning (MFF), including abuse, neglect, and parent maladjustment, exhibited the strongest associations with PE onset in all life-course stages. Sexual abuse exhibited a strong association with PE onset during childhood (OR 8.5, 95% CI 3.6–20.2), whereas Other CA types were associated with PE onset in adolescence. Associations of other CAs with PEs disappeared in adolescence after adjustment for prior-onset mental disorders. The population attributable risk proportion (PARP) for PEs associated with all CAs was 31% (24% for MFF).
Exposure to CAs is associated with PE onset throughout the life-course, although sexual abuse is most strongly associated with childhood-onset PEs. The presence of mental disorders prior to the onset of PEs does not fully explain these associations. The large PARPs suggest that preventing CAs could lead to a meaningful reduction in PEs in the population.
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in children aged <5 years with diarrhoea, but little is known about risk factors, aetiology and outcome of such children. We aimed to evaluate these knowledge gaps of UTI in children aged <5 years with diarrhoea. We enrolled all children aged <5 years with diarrhoea admitted to Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, between May 2011 and April 2013, who had history of fever (⩾38 °C) and obtained a urine sample for culture. Diarrhoea with UTI (confirmed by culture) constituted cases (n = 26) and those without UTI constituted controls (n = 78). Threefold controls were randomly selected. The case-fatality rate was comparable in cases and controls (4% vs. 1%, P = 0·439). Escherichia coli (69%) and Klebsiella (15%) were the most commonly isolated pathogens. Persistent diarrhoea, pneumonia and prior antibiotics use were identified as risk factors for UTI in logistic regression analysis (P < 0·05 for all). Thus, children with diarrhoea presenting with persistent diarrhoea, pneumonia, and prior antibiotic use should be investigated for UTI for their prompt management that may reduce morbidity.
The Proterozoic Sushina Hill Complex is the only agpaitic complex, reported from India and is characterized by a eudialyte-rinkite-bearing nepheline syenite. The complex is considered a ‘metamorphosed agpaitic complex'. This study describes the mineral assemblages formed during successive stages of evolution from magmatic to hydrothermal stages and low-temperature subsolidus re-equilibration assemblage. The primary-late magmatic assemblage is characterized by albite, orthoclase, unaltered nepheline, zoned diopside-hedenbergite, rinkite, late magmatic eudialyte and magnesio-arfvedsonite formed at ∼700°C with maximum aSiO2 of 0.60. In contrast, a deuteric assemblage (400-348°C) is represented by aegirine-jadeite-rich clinopyroxene, post-magmatic eudialyte, sodalite, analcime and the decomposition assemblages formed after eudialyte with decreasing aSiO2 (0.52-0.48). A further low-temperature subsolidus assemblage (≤250°C) represented by late-forming natrolite could be either related to regressive stages of metamorphism or a continuum of the subsolidus processes. Considering the P/T range of the greenschist - lower-amphibolite facies of metamorphism it is evident that the incorporation of a jadeite component within pyroxene is related to a subsolidus process between ∼400°C and 348°C in a silica deficient environment. We emphasize that the deuteric fluid itself acted as an agent of metamorphism and the decomposition assemblage formed after eudialyte is retained even after metamorphism due to the convergence of subsolidus and metamorphic domains. The formation of jadeite-rich aegirine is not considered to result from metamorphism. Overall it is near-impossible to discern any bona fide metamorphic textures or mineral assemblages in these syenites which appear to preserve a relict mineralogy regardless of their occurrence in country rocks which have experienced greenschist - amphibolite facies metamorphism. The Sushina complex is very similar in this respect to the Norra Kärr complex (Sweden).
Using images from the Hubble Space Telescope and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we have computed both parametric and non-parametric measures, and examined the evolution in size, concentration, stellar mass, effective stellar mass density and asymmetry for a sample of 600 disc galaxies from z ~ 1 till z ~ 0. We find that disc galaxies have gained more than 50 per cent of their present stellar mass over the last 8 Gyr. Also, the increase in disc size is found to be peripheral. While the average total (Petrosian) radius almost doubles from z ~ 1 to z ~ 0, the average effective (half-light) radius undergoes a marginal increase in comparison. This indicates that galaxies grow more substantially in their outskirts, and is consistent with the inside-out growth picture. The substantial increase in mass and size indicates that accretion of external material has been a dominant mode of galaxy growth, where the circumgalactic environment plays a significant role.
A comprehensive study based on U–Pb and Hf isotope analyses of zircons from gneisses has been conducted along the western part (Babina area) of the E–W-trending Bundelkhand Tectonic Zone in the central part of the Archaean Bundelkhand Craton. 207Pb–206Pb zircon ages and Hf isotopic data indicate the existence of a felsic crust at ~ 3.59 Ga, followed by a second tectonothermal event at ~ 3.44 Ga, leading to calc-alkaline magmatism and subsequent crustal growth. The study hence suggests that crust formation in the Bundelkhand Craton occurred in a similar time-frame to that recorded from the Singhbhum and Bastar cratons of the North Indian Shield.
The problems of using performance parameters such as voltage, current and temperature measured with electrical sensors in today’s battery management systems (BMS) are well known. These parameters can be weakly informative about cell state, particularly as cells age, and contribute to over-conservative utilization and oversizing of a battery pack. Fiber optic (FO) sensors can offer an interesting alternative to conventional electrical sensors, with several advantages such as high selective sensitivity to various parameters, light weight, robustness to EMI, and multiplexing capabilities. In this study, a particular type of FO sensors, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors were externally attached to lithium ion pouch cells for monitoring additional informative cell parameter such as strain and temperature. Multiple charge and discharge cycle were performed to examine the qualification of these signals for cell state estimation in BMS. In comparison to corresponding measurements using conventional electrical sensors, the FBG signals showed very promising results for utilization in effective BMS.
Cell aging and state-of-health (SOH) estimation is widely acknowledged as a challenge in state-of-the-art battery management systems deployed today. Towards addressing this issue, gas evolution monitoring from side reactions using embedded sensors was investigated as a parameter of interest for SOH. Li-ion battery cells with a Mn-rich chemistry were subjected to overcharge experiments. Two cells were repeatedly overcharged and the evolution of gaseous CO2 was measured using fiber optic colorimetric sensors, which were incorporated and sealed into the side pouch of the battery pouch cells. A ratiometric read-out principle has been employed for the optical measurements. Initial results indicate a non-reversible gas evolution inside the battery cells during overcharge, wherein the onset of gas evolution is delayed in time relative to the overcharge condition. An increase in the sensing signal can be observed over a time span of 40 – 50 minutes during each overcharge cycle. This investigation provides real-time information on the dynamics of gas evolution in Li-ion pouch cells during overcharge experiments and allows for an early detection of potentially hazardous cell states.
Over a 2-year period, 25 families comprising of 181 individuals of all ages were longitudinally observed for the excretion of Campylobacter species. Faecal samples were taken from all persons with diarrhoea. Specimens were also taken from apparently healthy individuals and from domestic animals living within the confines of the study families at monthly intervals.
The overall diarrhoea attack rate was 19 episodes per 100 person-years with peak incidence in the 1- to 4-year-old age group (76/100 person-years). Eight (11·5%) of the total episodes were campylobacter-associated and the overall rate of campylobacter positive diarrhoeal episodes were 2·2 per 100 person-years. Of the 1002 stool samples from healthy individuals 32 (3·2/100 samples) were positive for campylobacter. The organism was most frequently isolated from children under 1 year of age both during diarrhoeal episodes (11·5 per 100 person-years) and non-diarrhoeal (11·1 per 100 samples). Multiple infections in a family were rare. In 19·4% of the occasions one or more animals were campylobacter positive. However, only in 7·7% of these occasions was a human infection recorded within 1 month after the animal was found to be positive.
The study showed that the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in this community was distinct compared to that observed in developed countries.
The distribution and virulence of Vibrio cholerae serogroups other than O1 and O139 in India before, during and after the advent of O139 serogroup was investigated. A total of 68 strains belonging to 31 different ‘O’ serogroups were identified during the study period. With the exception of O53, there was no spatial or temporal clustering of any particular non-O1 non-O139 serogroup at any given place. Two of the 68 strains examined produced cholera toxin (CT) which could only be partially absorbed with anti-CT immunoglobulin G. Tissue culture assay revealed that some of the non-O1 non-O139 strains produced factors which evoked either a cell rounding or cell elongation response depending upon the medium used. This study indicates that serogroups other than O1 and O139 should also be continuously monitored.
During 19837 a clinical diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) was confirmed by the detection of measles virus haemagglutination inhibiting antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 81 subjects resident in Tamilnadu. The antibody titre (reciprocol of the endpoint dilution) in the CSF ranged from 2 to 32 and in the sera from 8 to 2048. The CSF: serum ratios of titres were 1:41:64 in 80 cases and 1:128 in one case. The median age at onset of SSPE was 10 years and 97% of cases were diagnosed at stage 2 and beyond. Based on the geographic distribution of 72 cases in an estimated population of 84 million, the annual incidence of SSPE was calculated to be 214 per million population, or 43 cases per million children below 20 years. Assuming that only 10% of all cases would have reached the level of laboratory diagnosis, the incidence may be as high as 21 cases per million population.
The blue compact dwarf galaxy I Zw 18 holds the record of the lowest metallicity ever observed in the local universe. As such, it represents the closest analog to primordial galaxies in the early universe. More interestingly, it has recurrently been regarded as a genuinely young galaxy caught in the process of forming in the nearby universe. However, stars of increasingly older ages are found within I Zw 18 every time deeper high-resolution photometric observations are performed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST): from the original few tens of Myrs to, possibly, several Gyrs. Here we summarize the history of I Zw 18 age and present an ongoing HST/ACS project which allowed us to precisely derive the galaxy distance by studying its Cepheid variables, and to firmly establish the age of its faintest resolved populations.
Pulsed laser deposited cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoporous thin film on platinum (Pt) coated glass has been used for immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) by electrostatic interaction. Atomic force microscopy studies reveal the formation of nanoporous surface morphology of CeO2 thin film. Differential pulse voltammetric and optical measurements show that the GOx/CeO2/Pt bioelectrode is sensitive to the detection of glucose over the concentration upto 300 mg/dl. A low value of enzyme's kinetic parameter (Michaelis-Menten constant∼1.01 mM) indicates enhanced enzyme affinity of GOx to glucose.
The serendipitous discovery of a gravitational lens system formed
by an elliptical galaxy at z ~ 1 and a post-starburst
galaxy at z ~ 3.8 brings a unique opportunity to study in
detail the mass profile of a massive and relaxed object at a look
back time of half the age of the universe. We sketch here a comparison
of different methods to reconstruct the mass of the lens,
and non-parametrically, highlighting their advantanges and limitations.
In this study the status of oxidant stress, vitamin A and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) levels were evaluated in cases of laryngeal carcinoma patients from Northern India. In control subjects the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin A and ACE were 0.23 ± 0.07 nmole/ml, 2515 ± 84 IU, and 1.4 ± 0.8 U/ml respectively. Thirty laryngeal cancer patients were divided into three groups according to the TNM classification (American Joint Committee on Cancers). In laryngeal cancer patients according to tumour size, MDA and ACE levels increased to 0.32 ± 0.04 nmole/ml and 4.7 ± 0.5 U/ml respectively and the effect was statistically significant (p<0.01). The correlation coefficient between different subgroups was also highly significant (r =0.96, p<0.01). However, serum vitamin A levels decreased to 621 ± 20 IU and the effect was statistically significant (p<0.01). In another two groups of laryngeal cancer patients, a similar pattern of various markers was obtained. Thirty patients with laryngeal carcinoma were divided into four different groups according to nodal involvement and it was observed that in laryngeal cancer patients with no nodal involvement, ACE levels were low 3.6 ± 1.4 U/ml while patients with maximum nodal involvement had the highest levels of ACE 7.1 ± 0.18 U/ml. The correlation coefficient between different groups is highly statistically significant (r = 0.95, p<0.01). In patients with laryngeal cancer the serum MDA and vitamin A levels correlation coefficient between different groups was not significant. It is thus concluded that serum ACE might be a specific test marker for laryngeal cancer disease burden. The use of this marker enzyme for therapeutics is being planned.