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A nonparaxial investigation for propagation characteristics of q-Gaussian laser beam in rippled density plasma is studied by considering the relativistic nonlinearity. The field distribution in the medium is expressed in terms of q parameter and beam width parameter f. Nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation governing the evolution of complex envelope in slowly varying approximation is solved in a modulated density profile. Analytical theory of self-focusing including higher order terms in the expansion of dielectric function up to fourth order is developed and the variation of beam width parameter f with the distance of propagation for different parameters is studied. One may note that increased value of density ripple, laser intensity and depth of modulation, increases self-focusing whereas a lower value of q shows strong self-focusing. A comparative study between paraxial and nonparaxial study has also conducted. This study is useful for research in high energy density physics.
The most important element in consumer enjoyment of meat is tenderness, closely followed by flavour, with variation in these traits having a significant impact on consumer satisfaction (Casas et al. 2006). In order to forge improvements in these traits, either through quantitative breeding or molecular genetics, it is essential that there is a reliable method of trait testing. Sensory data, as collected using a taste panel, are subject to high measurement error as well as problems associated with subjectivity. Unfortunately these sensory panels are a necessary step in the improvement of the above mentioned beef traits, as no machine can measure the range of interacting characteristics that contribute to eating quality and palatability (Warriss 2000). This study aimed to test the repeatability and reproducibility values for seven sensory beef traits assessed by a taste panel operating in a commercial setting.
Feeding non-digestible, fermentable carbohydrates that do not lead to increased viscosity may reduce risk of enteric disorders arising from feeding high protein diets to newly weaned pigs (Wellock et al. 2007). Lactose and inulin are such fermentable carbohydrates. Lactose is fermented at a relatively high rate, and would thus affect gut environment in the distal ileum and proximal large intestine. In contrast, inulin is fermented more slowly and would be expected to affect gut environment in the proximal and distal large intestine. Consequently, their combined use could be expected to affect gut environment throughout the distal gastrointestinal tract, and through their prebiotic action reduce risk of enteric disorders (Wellock et al. 2007). The objective of the current experiment was to investigate the combined effects of lactose level and inulin inclusion on the performance and health of weaned pigs in the immediate post weaning period, in the absence of anti-microbial growth promoters, therapeutic levels of ZnO and CuSO4 in a commercial, large-scale facility.
Liquid feed has to be pumped through pipes to deliver it to pigs. The dry matter content of the diet and the distribution of particle size affects a number of physico-chemical properties of the process. These determine the initial power needed to start a pump from the stationary position and to circulate the feed through the system. Particle size also affects the homogeneity of the diet and the extent to which separation occurs during pumping and after delivery to the trough. In ad lib. feeding systems there is an opportunity for feed particles to hydrate and increase in size. These changes could have a significant effect on viscosity and hence the DM concentration of the diet that could be pumped at a particular power loading. In dry diets, particle size distribution is normally assessed and described on the basis of simple dry sieving. However, this method cannot be used with liquid diets. In other applications, the sizes of particles in a suspension have been assessed using laser particle size analysis (Chmelik et al. 2001). This study was designed to 1) Determine the extent to which particle size distribution was changed by different disk mill settings; 2) Examine the change in particle size distribution resulting from steeping the cereal component in water for 24h; 3) Determine the effect of particle size on viscosity.
The pulsar’s signal passes through the interstellar medium (ISM) which leads to both chromatic dispersive delays and multipath pulse broadening. These effects have a strong frequency dependence (f−2 and f−4 respectively). Pulse profiles of pulsars are also frequency-dependent leading to some degeneracy with the ISM imprint. Furthermore, many pulsars show a turnover of their spectrum around ~100 MHz. For all these reasons, the frequency band below 100 MHz contains a lot of information about both the pulsar emission and the ISM. Our study is based on a LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) monitoring campaign using the international station FR606. Firstly, we demonstrate the importance of a monitoring campaign. Secondly, we calculate median spectra and locate the turnover frequency for 3 pulsars (B0809+74, B1133+16, B1508+55).
Since the discovery of the first pulsar in 1967, over 2500 pulsars have been discovered. Pulsars enable a broad range of studies: from the study of the properties of the interstellar medium and of pulsar magnetospheres to tests of gravity in the strong-field regime and the characterisation of the cosmological gravitation wave background. These reasons are the main drive for searching for more pulsars. A blind pulsar survey, named SPAN512, was initiated with the Nançay Radio Telescope in 2012. Conducted at 1.4 GHz with a sampling time of 64μs and 500-kHz frequency channels, SPAN512 was designed to search for fast and distant pulsars in the Galactic plane. Here we describe the current status of the survey and present the latest discovery, PSR J2055+3829, a 2.08-ms pulsar in a black widow system.
International LOFAR stations, equipped with powerful backends, can be used as individual telescopes, and provide data sets complementary to those obtained with the LOFAR Core. Such “local mode” observations are particularly adapted to monitoring observations, where the advantage of having a high observing cadence (one observation per week) outweighs the reduced sensitivity of a single station when compared to the full array. With such observations, it is possible to monitor the temporal evolution of the pulsars’ behaviour via its dispersion, scattering, intensity, and profile shape. We present recent studies performed in the LOFAR low band (10-90 MHz).
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
The Numeniini is a tribe of 13 wader species (Scolopacidae, Charadriiformes) of which seven are Near Threatened or globally threatened, including two Critically Endangered. To help inform conservation management and policy responses, we present the results of an expert assessment of the threats that members of this taxonomic group face across migratory flyways. Most threats are increasing in intensity, particularly in non-breeding areas, where habitat loss resulting from residential and commercial development, aquaculture, mining, transport, disturbance, problematic invasive species, pollution and climate change were regarded as having the greatest detrimental impact. Fewer threats (mining, disturbance, problematic native species and climate change) were identified as widely affecting breeding areas. Numeniini populations face the greatest number of non-breeding threats in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, especially those associated with coastal reclamation; related threats were also identified across the Central and Atlantic Americas, and East Atlantic flyways. Threats on the breeding grounds were greatest in Central and Atlantic Americas, East Atlantic and West Asian flyways. Three priority actions were associated with monitoring and research: to monitor breeding population trends (which for species breeding in remote areas may best be achieved through surveys at key non-breeding sites), to deploy tracking technologies to identify migratory connectivity, and to monitor land-cover change across breeding and non-breeding areas. Two priority actions were focused on conservation and policy responses: to identify and effectively protect key non-breeding sites across all flyways (particularly in the East Asian- Australasian Flyway), and to implement successful conservation interventions at a sufficient scale across human-dominated landscapes for species’ recovery to be achieved. If implemented urgently, these measures in combination have the potential to alter the current population declines of many Numeniini species and provide a template for the conservation of other groups of threatened species.
To compare the microbiological efficacy, turnaround time, cost, convenience, and patient and user tolerance of Tristel Trio Wipes, PeraSafe solution and Cidex OPA solution for the high-level disinfection of flexible nasendoscopes.
Flexible nasendoscopes were used in routine clinical encounters. They were then disinfected with one of the three disinfectant methods. Surveillance cultures were taken before and after each disinfection process. Data relating to each of the study parameters were recorded.
Positive bacterial cultures were discovered on nasendoscopes disinfected with PeraSafe and Cidex OPA. Tristel Trio Wipes have no capital outlay cost, the lowest running cost, the greatest convenience and the fastest turnaround time. PeraSafe had a faster turnaround time than Cidex OPA, and lower running costs.
Tristel Trio Wipes are equal to PeraSafe and Cidex OPA in terms of microbiological efficacy. Turnaround time and cost are dramatically reduced when using Tristel Trio Wipes compared to the other disinfectant methods.
Although the incidence of cancer increases with age, elderly patients are often excluded from clinical trials. In addition, elderly patients are frequently undertreated in comparison to younger patients. One explanation for these observations is age stigma (i.e. ageism). In this context, this study has two objectives: (1) to replicate the results of previous studies that reported differential support of medical treatment depending on the patient's age in a different healthcare provider population (nurses rather than physicians); and (2) to determine whether support for expensive immunotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, or breast reconstruction is linked to ageism among nurses.
The participants were 76 nurses who specialized in oncology. They received four clinical vignettes: one vignette about an immunotherapy with a high societal cost (age of patient: 40 vs. 70 years), and three vignettes about adjuvant chemotherapy and breast reconstruction (age of patient: 35, 55, or 75 years – age was the only difference). A questionnaire and a fluency task were used to assess the participants’ vision of aging.
Our analyses show that support for immunotherapy, breast reconstruction, and chemotherapy is lower for older patients than for younger patients. Moreover, nurses’ vision of aging influences support for breast reconstruction: nurses with a negative view of age discriminated more between a 75-year-old patient and a 35-year-old patient (less encouragement for the older patient).
These results highlight the need for nurses and other healthcare providers to receive specific training about ageism and its consequences.
Cells from the three domains of life produce extracellular membrane vesicles (EMVs), suggesting that EMV production is an important aspect of cellular physiology. EMVs have been implicated in many aspects of cellular life in all domains, including stress response, toxicity against competing strains, pathogenicity, detoxification and resistance against viral attack. These EMVs represent an important mode of inter-cellular communication by serving as vehicles for transfer of DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids between cells. Here, we review recent progress in the understanding of EMV biology and their various roles. We focus on the role of membrane vesicles in early cellular evolution and how they would have helped shape the nature of the last universal common ancestor. A membrane-protected micro-environment would have been a key to the survival of spontaneous molecular systems and efficient metabolic reactions. Interestingly, the morphology of EMVs is strongly reminiscent of the morphology of some virions. It is thus tempting to make a link between the origin of the first protocell via the formation of vesicles and the origin of viruses.
Ecological restoration of trees is often constrained by limited knowledge of the biology, propagation and management requirements of individual species. Consequently, restoration initiatives rarely incorporate less well-known species or those that are difficult to source and grow. We describe challenges associated with the restoration of threatened trees in the Araucaria Forest of southern Brazil, and analyse the effectiveness of methods used to define target species, identify seed sources and generate information on the phenology of rare or threatened tree species. A review of secondary data identified 71 rare or threatened taxa as targets for seed collection. We then surveyed 68.7 km of trails in 26 forest remnants, identifying and mapping 1,027 seed-producing trees of 38 species. Surveys confirmed the scarcity of several tree species (including seven species with an abundance of <0.04 individuals per km), and nine species showed no signs of fruiting during 3 years of phenological monitoring. These findings, together with limited knowledge and application of optimal seed collection methods, are significant factors impeding the recovery of these species within their natural habitat. Wider application of the results of this case study could support restoration of the Araucaria Forest with seedlings from a wider diversity of species.
Under controlled irradiation of low energy carbon ions, photoluminescence (PL) study of InAs quantum dots prepared with different capping structures (GaAs and InAlGaAs) was carried out. Samples were investigated by varying implantation energy from 15 keV to 50 keV with fluence ranging between 3 × 1011ions/cm2 and 8 × 1011 ions/cm2. For fixed fluence of 4 × 1011ions/cm2, low temperature PL showed enhancement in a certain range of energy, along with a blue shift in the PL peak wavelength. In contrast, with varying fluence at fixed implantation energy of 50 keV, PL enhancement was not significant, rather a drop in PL intensity was noted at higher fluence from 5 × 1011 to 8 × 1011 ions/cm2. Moreover, carbon ion implantation caused a blue shift in the PL emission peak for both energy and fluence variations. PL intensity suppression was possibly caused by the formation of non-radiative recombination centers (NRCs) near the capping layer, while the corresponding blue shift might be attributed to stress generation in the capping layer due to implantation. As-grown and implanted InAlGaAs capped samples did not exhibit much variation in full width at half maxima of PL spectra; however, significant variation was observed for the GaAs capped sample. These results validate that InAlGaAs-capped QDs are more immune to ion implantation.
InP membranes have been bonded both oxide free and oxide mediated onto a Si substrate. The mechanical responses of the obtained thin (0.4 µm) membranes could be tested by nanoindentation and compared. Delamination of the membrane was observed to occur when the indenting load reached 55 mN for an oxide mediated bonded structure and 80 mN for an oxide free bonded one. Weibull analysis of these events yielded a modulus m of magnitude 6 to 10, indicating that delamination fracture is relatively predictable with a stronger interface obtained in oxide free approach. Delamination of the membrane is the result of constraint of plastic flow by the InP/Si interface. Membrane rotation is induced and increases with the indentation load, until it is sufficient to induce and propagate an interfacial crack.
Obesity has been shown to be associated with depression and it has been suggested that higher body mass index (BMI) increases the risk of depression and other common mental disorders. However, the causal relationship remains unclear and Mendelian randomisation, a form of instrumental variable analysis, has recently been employed to attempt to resolve this issue.
To investigate whether higher BMI increases the risk of major depression.
Two instrumental variable analyses were conducted to test the causal relationship between obesity and major depression in RADIANT, a large case–control study of major depression. We used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in FTO and a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 32 SNPs with well-established associations with BMI.
Linear regression analysis, as expected, showed that individuals carrying more risk alleles of FTO or having higher score of GRS had a higher BMI. Probit regression suggested that higher BMI is associated with increased risk of major depression. However, our two instrumental variable analyses did not support a causal relationship between higher BMI and major depression (FTO genotype: coefficient −0.03, 95% CI −0.18 to 0.13, P = 0.73; GRS: coefficient −0.02, 95% CI −0.11 to 0.07, P = 0.62).
Our instrumental variable analyses did not support a causal relationship between higher BMI and major depression. The positive associations of higher BMI with major depression in probit regression analyses might be explained by reverse causality and/or residual confounding.