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Korea has the highest suicide rate of developed countries, two times higher than the USA. Suicide trends among Koreans Americans living in the USA during the same period have not yet been described. We report suicide mortality rates and trends for four groups: (1) Korean Americans, (2) non-Hispanic White (NHW) Americans, (3) selected Asian American subgroups and (4) Koreans living in the Republic of Korea.
We used US national (n = 18 113 585) and World Health Organization (WHO) (n = 232 919 253) mortality records for Korea from 2003 to 2012 to calculate suicide rates, all expressed per 100 000 persons. We assessed temporal trends and differences in age, gender and race/ethnicity using binomial regression.
Suicide rates are highest in Koreans living in the Republic of Korea (32.4 for men and 14.8 for women). Suicide rates in Korean Americans (13.9 for men and 6.5 for women) have nearly doubled from 2003 to 2012 and exceed rates for all other Asian American subgroups (5.4–10.7 for men and 1.6–4.2 for women). Suicide rates among NHWs (21.0 for men and 5.6 for women) remain high. Among elders, suicide in Korean Americans (32.9 for men and 15.4 for women) is the highest of all examined racial/ethnic groups in the USA.
Suicide in Korean Americans is higher than for other Asian Americans and follows temporal patterns more similar to Korea than the USA. Interventions to prevent suicide in Korean American populations, particularly among the elderly, are needed.
An association between low levels of physical activity and impaired cognitive performance in schizophrenia has been proposed, but most studies have relied on self-report measures of activity. This study examined the association between actigraphy-derived physical activity and cognitive performance adjusting for multiple covariates in patients with schizophrenia.
Patients with schizophrenia (n = 199) were recruited from chronic psychiatric wards, and 60 age-, sex- and body mass index-matched comparison participants were recruited from the staff of two hospitals and universities. Physical activity was assessed objectively for 7 days using an ActiGraph. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Cognitrone test from the Vienna Test System and the Grooved Pegboard Test. Demographic variables, metabolic parameters, positive and negative symptoms, duration of illness and hospitalization, and medication use were included as covariates. Pearson correlations and multivariable linear regressions were conducted to examine the associations between physical activity levels and cognitive performance.
Patients with schizophrenia were less physically active and had poorer performance on attention/concentration and speed of processing than the comparison group. Patients with schizophrenia who spent more time in light physical activity showed better performance on attention/concentration (β = 0.198, p = 0.020) and speed of processing (β= −0.169, p = 0.048) tasks than those who were less active. Cognitive performance was also associated with moderate-vigorous physical activity, but the effect was no longer significant once light physical activity had been taken into account.
This study provides evidence for a positive association between objectively measured light physical activity and cognitive performance in people with schizophrenia, after adjustment for multiple confounders.
Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is an important market vegetable in the tropics. The objectives of this study were to (1) conduct a preliminary evaluation of genetic diversity in bitter gourd flesh (without seeds) for phytonutrient (carotenoid, ascorbic acid and tocopherol) contents with the aim to understand which phytonutrients might be increased through breeding, (2) assess the association between fruit traits and phytonutrient contents and (3) evaluate the effect of the fruit harvest stage on phytonutrient contents. A total of 17 diverse bitter gourd entries of various commercial market types were evaluated for fruit traits and phytonutrient contents for 2 years. Significant differences (P= 0.05) among the entries were detected for total carotenoids, total tocopherols, dry matter and fruit traits. Mean total carotenoid contents of the entries ranged from 10 to 1335 μg/100 g fresh weight in year 1 and 10 to 1185 μg/100 g fresh weight in year 2. Mean ascorbic acid contents were 69 and 61 mg/100 g fresh weight in year 1 and year 2, respectively. Total tocopherol contents among the entries ranged from 480 to 1345 and 445 to 2145 μg/100 g fresh weight in year 1 and year 2, respectively. Total carotenoid and ascorbic acid contents were highest at 12 days after fruit set (DAFS), but total tocopherol contents were highest from 14 to 20 DAFS. A 100 g portion of bitter gourd fruit can meet 190, 17 and 8% of the recommended daily allowances of vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin A, respectively, for adults.
Language use is often disrupted in patients with schizophrenia; novel
computational approaches may provide new insights.
To test word use patterns as markers of the perceptual, cognitive and
social experiences characteristic of schizophrenia.
Word counting software was applied to first-person accounts of
schizophrenia and mood disorder.
More third-person plural pronouns (‘they’) and fewer first-person
singular pronouns (‘I’) were used in schizophrenia than mood disorder
accounts. Schizophrenia accounts included fewer words related to the body
and ingestion, and more related to religion. Perceptual and causal
language were negatively correlated in schizophrenia accounts but
positively correlated in mood disorder accounts.
Differences in pronouns suggest decreased self-focus or perhaps even an
understanding of self as other in schizophrenia. Differences in how
perceptual and causal words are correlated suggest that long-held
delusions represent a decreased coupling of explanations with sensory
experience over time.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
To determine whether controlling the prescription of targeted antibiotics would translate to a measurable reduction in hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) rates.
A multicenter before-and-after intervention comparative study.
Ten medical centers in the greater New York region. Intervention group comprised of 6 facilities with early antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs). The 4 facilities without ASPs made up the nonintervention group.
Intervention facilities identified target antibiotics using case-control studies and implemented ASP-based strategies to control their use. Pre- and postintervention hospital-onset CDI rates and antibiotic consumption were compared for a 20-month period from June 2010 to January 2012. Antibiotic usage was compared using defined daily dose, days of therapy, and number of courses prescribed. Comparisons used bivariate and regression techniques.
Intervention facilities identified piperacillin/tazobactam, fluoroquinolones, or cefepime (odds ratio, 2.0-9.8 in CDI case patients compared with those without CDI) as intervention targets and selected several interventions (all included a component of audit and feedback). Varying degrees of success were observed in reducing antibiotic consumption over time. Total target antibiotic use significantly decreased (P < .05) when measured by days of therapy and number of courses but not by defined daily dose. Intravenous moxifloxacin and oral ciprofloxacin use showed significant reduction when measured by defined daily dose and days of therapy (P ≤ .01). Number of courses with all forms of these antibiotics was reduced (P ≤ .005). Intervention hospitals reported fewer hospital-onset CDI cases (2.8 rate point difference) compared with nonintervention hospitals; however, we were unable to show statistically significant decreases in aggregate hospital-onset CDI either between intervention and nonintervention groups or within the intervention group over time.
Although decreases in target antibiotic consumption did not translate into reductions of hospital-onset CDI in this study, many valuable lessons (including implementation strategies and antibiotic consumption measures) were learned. The findings can inform potential policy decisions regarding incorporating control of CDI and ASP as healthcare quality measures.
This multicentre surveillance study was conducted to investigate the trends in incidence and aetiology of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (HCA-BSIs) in Taiwan. From 2000 to 2011 a total of 56 830 HCA-BSIs were recorded at three medical centres, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were the most common pathogens isolated (n = 9465, 16·7%), followed by E. coli (n = 7599, 13·4%). The incidence of all HCA-BSIs in each and all hospitals significantly increased over the study period owing to the increase of aerobic Gram-positive cocci and Enterobacteriaceae by 4·2% and 3·6%, respectively. Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria, Bacteroides spp. and Candida spp. also showed an increase but there was a significant decline in the numbers of methicillin-resistant S. aureus. In conclusion, the incidence of HCA-BSIs in Taiwan is significantly increasing, especially for Enterobacteriaceae and aerobic Gram-positive cocci.
Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA), and other methods based on the same principle, are sensitive and specific, but they suffer from several disadvantages, such as their inherent complexity and requirement for multiple reagents, incubation and washing steps and require a relatively large sample size. We have adapted a new carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNT-FET) based platform to capture Escherichia coli antigens using only the capture anti-body showing good correlation with an established ELISA assay contrived positive and negative specimens were used to test the new CNT-FET platform and results were obtained within three minutes per each sample. The test is easy to perform, rapid, and cost efficient making it a valuable screening tool for E. coli. In this study, we looked at the applicability of using CNT field effect transistor based biosensor as a rapid diagnostic platform for Escherichia coli O157:H7. The CNT-FETs platform detected positive E. coli samples in three minutes using only 2.5 μL of sample volume. This low sample volume required by the CNT-FET platform can be especially advantageous for diagnostic tests constricted by limited amount of samples.
Common igniters such as black powder, benite, and boron potassium nitrate (BKNO3) are routinely employed in all calibers of gun systems. Armament Research Development Engineering Center (ARDEC) has pursued efforts to improve the ignition of gun propellants which has been demonstrated to be the root cause of many tribulations for gun systems. We have developed several extrudable nitrocellulose-BKNO3 based igniter materials that are more energetic, and exhibit smaller ignition delay times than most traditional igniters. We have demonstrated this via static firing. High speed video during static testing has demonstrated significantly more consistent, intense, and rapid flame generation in comparison to Benite leading to improved ignition effectiveness of the propellant bed.
Background: The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB) offers information on the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and gives a profile of cognitive functioning. This study explores the effects of age, education and gender on participants' performance on eight subtests in the Chinese-Cantonese version of the CERAD-NAB.
Methods: The original English version of the CERAD-NAB was translated and content-validated into a Chinese-Cantonese version to suit the Hong Kong Chinese population. The battery was administered to 187 healthy volunteers aged 60 to 94 years. Participants were excluded if they had neurological, medical or psychiatric disorders (including dementia). Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relative contribution of the demographic variables to the scores on each subtest.
Results: The Cantonese version of CERAD-NAB was shown to have good content validity and excellent inter-rater reliability. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that performances on seven and four out of eight subtests in the CERAD-NAB were significantly influenced by education level and age, respectively. Age and education had significant effects on participants' performance on many tests. Gender also showed a significant effect on one subtest.
Conclusions: The preliminary data will serve as an initial phase for clinical interpretation of the CERAD-NAB for Cantonese-speaking Chinese elders.
Fluorinated silicon oxide (SiOF) films were deposited by electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (ECRPECVD). The behavior of residual stress w as studied with water absorption. SiOF film showed compressive stress after deposition. The compressive stress increased after the exposure to room air. Fourier transformed infrared (FTI R) spectroscopy analysis was carried after the water absorption. However, the change of chemical bonding structure was not observed during the water absorption in this study. After the exposu re to room air, the films were kept in dry air. The residual stress returns to the initial value after 1 week. Considering the results of the residual stress and FTIR analysis, it is supposed that the water absorption in this study occurs entirely by physical adsorption of H2O molecules to Si-F bonds on the surface.
A new structure of triode type field emission displays based on single-walled carbon nanotube emitters is demonstrated. In this structure, gate electrodes are situated under cathode electrodes with an in-between insulating layer, so called under-gate type triode. Electron emission from the carbon nanotube emitters is modulated by changing gate voltages. A threshold voltage is approximately 70 V at the anode bias of 275 V.
The evolution of the stress in coatings derived from divinylsiloxane bisbenzocyclobutene, mixed stereo and positional isomers of 1,3-bis(2-bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,3,5-trien-3-ylethenyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyl disiloxane (CAS 117732-87-3), has been measured on silicon substrates with an optically levered beam during thermal cycles. The stress at room temperature in gelled coatings varies between ca. 15 MPa and 45 MPa depending on the cure schedule. The progression of the polymer's glass transition temperature is correlated with the evolution of the structural state observed with FTIR. A method is presented for predictably controlling substrate curvature during multilayer processing.
Dielectric properties of bismuth-zinc-niobium oxide (Bi1.5Zn1.0Nb1.5O7, BZN) thin films have been investigated for embedded capacitor. Crystalline BZN has a pyrochlore structure in nature and shows a dielectric constant of ∼ 200 and very low leakage current when crystallized. Since the process temperature is limited to < 200 due to an organic based substrate in printed circuit board, as-deposited BZN film is composed of an amorphous phase, confirmed by XRD analysis. However, it shows remarkably high dielectric constant of 113. It makes BZN to be a proper candidate as a decoupling embedded capacitor in power delivery circuits. Effects of post treatment such as oxygen plasma treatment and low temperature thermal annealing on dielectric properties of BZN thin films are studied. By optimizing deposition conditions, amorphous BZN thin film is well processed in the current PCB process and provides a capacitance density as high as 218 nF/cm2 and leakage current less than 1 μA/cm2 at 3V.
We have studied the effects of CO coverage on surface diffusion rates of CO adsorbed on nanoparticle Pt catalysts in sulfuric acid media by using 13C electrochemical nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (EC-NMR) in the temperature range 253 - 293 K. For CO coverage from θ = 1.0 to 0.36, the diffusion coefficients follow Arrhenius behavior and both activation energy (Ed) and pre-exponential factor (Dco) show CO coverage dependence. Ed increases from 6.0 to 8.4 kcal/mol and DCO varies from 1.1 X 10-8 to 3.7 X 10-6 cm2/s when the coverage is increased from θ = 0.36 to θ = 1.0. On the Pt catalyst surface at partial CO coverage, our data strongly support the free site hopping model of adsorbed CO as the major surface diffusion mechanism, unlike the situation found with a fully CO covered surface where CO exchange between different surface sites is believed to be the major diffusion mechanism. Our results also indicate that the contributions of lateral repulsive interactions exert a stronger influence on the diffusive motion than does the nature of the surface structure. When the diffusion coefficient was estimated from CO stripping measurements by using an electrochemical modeling protocol, the estimated diffusion coefficients were a few orders of magnitude larger than those obtained from the EC-NMR experiments. Overall these results are important for improving our understanding of electrochemical surface dynamics of molecules at interfaces, and may help facilitate better control of fuel cell reactions where the presence of surface CO plays a crucial role in controlling the reaction rates.
Thin Si films on SiO2 that are completely melted by pulsed laser irradiation cool rapidly and eventually solidify via nucleation and growth of solids. It has been observed that a variety of solidified microstructures can be obtained, depending primarily (but not exclusively) on the degree of supercooling achieved prior to the onset of nucleation. This paper focuses on investigating one particular and unusual polycrystalline microstructure that consists of “flower-like” grains, the interiors of which can be described as being made up of two distinct regions: (1) an extremely defective core region consisting of fine-grained material, and (2) an outer region consisting of relatively defect-free crystal “petals” that radiate outwards. After considering the microstructural details and experimental behavior of the microstructure, we have formulated a growth-based physical model to account for the formation of the microstructure. The model is found to be also capable of accounting for the other complex and unusual microstructures obtained via nucleation and growth in the complete melting regime.
The standard method to determine the band structure of a condensed phase material is to (1) obtain a single crystal with a well defined surface and (2) map the bands with angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (occupied or valence bands) and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy (unoccupied or conduction bands). Unfortunately, in the case of Pu, the single crystals of Pu are either nonexistent, very small and/or having poorly defined surfaces. Furthermore, effects such as electron correlation and a large spin-orbit splitting in the 5f states have further complicated the situation. Thus, we have embarked upon the utilization of unorthodox electron spectroscopies, to circumvent the problems caused by the absence of large single crystals of Pu with well-defined surfaces. Our approach includes the techniques of resonant photoelectron spectroscopy , x-ray absorption spectroscopy [1,2,3,4], electron energy loss spectroscopy [2,3,4], Fano Effect measurements , and Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy , including the utilization of micro-focused beams to probe single-crystallite regions of polycrystalline Pu samples. [2,3,6]
We have investigated excimer laser irradiation of 2000-Å-thin as-deposited Al films on SiO2. Microstructural analysis of the irradiated films conducted with AFM and EBSD techniques reveals that there exists a wide energy density interval over which large equaxed grains with a strong (111) texture are obtained. Based on thermal, transformational, and microstructural considerations, we propose a heterogeneous nucleation model to account for the observed behaviors, and discuss the implication of the model on the phenomenon of heterogeneous nucleation of crystalline solids in condensed systems as regards the thermodynamic role played by the orientation of subcritical clusters.