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Filamentary structures can form within the beam of protons accelerated during the interaction of an intense laser pulse with an ultrathin foil target. Such behaviour is shown to be dependent upon the formation time of quasi-static magnetic field structures throughout the target volume and the extent of the rear surface proton expansion over the same period. This is observed via both numerical and experimental investigations. By controlling the intensity profile of the laser drive, via the use of two temporally separated pulses, both the initial rear surface proton expansion and magnetic field formation time can be varied, resulting in modification to the degree of filamentary structure present within the laser-driven proton beam.
Recent analysis pointed towards visual imaging analysis (VIA), which yields pig body size measures and shape indices from two-dimensional visual images of living pigs, as a potential technique for estimating fat and lean content in pig carcasses (Doeschl et al., 2004). The present analysis further explored the potential of using VIA body size and shape indices as indicators of the proportion of lean and fat in various carcass joints, either alone or in combination with ultrasonic backfat depth of the live animal. Due to increasing interest in the shape of retail cuts in the meat industry, the association between VIA size measures and the dimensions of the longissimus dorsi and gluteobiceps muscles is also assessed.
The weak thermal emission from the largest minor planets can be detected in the microwave regime by the Very Large Array (VLA). Signal-to-noise ratios are sufficiently high to permit precise measurement of the positions of these objects at all points in their orbits with respect to background extragalactic sources. We are in the process of obtaining observations of astrometric accuracy for minor planets 1 Ceres, 2 Pallas, 4 Vesta, and 10 Hygeia.
Minor planets have historically served as “test particles” in the solar system, and optical observations of these objects have been valuable in the determination of fundamental astronomical constants. In particular, optical observations of minor planets have played an important role in the establishment of the fundamental optical reference frame by permitting the determination of the orientation of the Earth's orbit relative to the stars defining the frame.
Similarly, radio observations of these bodies can play a corresponding role in the establishment of a fundamental radio reference frame. Our observations will provide a direct link between the dynamical and radio reference frames, and provide important information on the relationship between the radio and optical reference frames.
The Murchison Widefield Array is a new low-frequency interferometric radio telescope built in Western Australia at one of the locations of the future Square Kilometre Array. We describe the automated radio-frequency interference detection strategy implemented for the Murchison Widefield Array, which is based on the aoflagger platform, and present 72–231 MHz radio-frequency interference statistics from 10 observing nights. Radio-frequency interference detection removes 1.1% of the data. Radio-frequency interference from digital TV is observed 3% of the time due to occasional ionospheric or atmospheric propagation. After radio-frequency interference detection and excision, almost all data can be calibrated and imaged without further radio-frequency interference mitigation efforts, including observations within the FM and digital TV bands. The results are compared to a previously published Low-Frequency Array radio-frequency interference survey. The remote location of the Murchison Widefield Array results in a substantially cleaner radio-frequency interference environment compared to Low-Frequency Array’s radio environment, but adequate detection of radio-frequency interference is still required before data can be analysed. We include specific recommendations designed to make the Square Kilometre Array more robust to radio-frequency interference, including: the availability of sufficient computing power for radio-frequency interference detection; accounting for radio-frequency interference in the receiver design; a smooth band-pass response; and the capability of radio-frequency interference detection at high time and frequency resolution (second and kHz-scale respectively).
In the past three decades there have been many efforts at removing discrimination between people on grounds of sex, both in legislation and in practice. It has come to be accepted that, apart from certain excluded areas, men and women should have equal opportunities and equal rights in equivalent circumstances. This ‘principle of equal treatment’ of the sexes means, amongst other things, that there must be equal rewards for the same work.
Legal effect to these concepts was given by the Equal Pay Act 1970 and the Sex Discrimination Act 1975, both of which excluded from their ambit provision in respect of death or retirement and statutory instruments then in force (e.g. the Social Security Acts, which enshrine unequal State pensionable ages).
In 1986, Helen Marshall successfully won her case before the European Court, that she should have the right to the same contractual retirement age as her male colleagues. As a result, the Sex Discrimination Act 1986 modified the ‘death or retirement’ exclusions of the 1975 Act to provide that one sex cannot be compulsorily retired before the other but retained the exception that permits one sex to have an earlier normal pension age.
The B fields in OB stars (BOB) survey is an ESO large programme collecting spectropolarimetric observations for a large number of early-type stars in order to study the occurrence rate, properties, and ultimately the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars. As of July 2014, a total of 98 objects were observed over 20 nights with FORS2 and HARPSpol. Our preliminary results indicate that the fraction of magnetic OB stars with an organised, detectable field is low. This conclusion, now independently reached by two different surveys, has profound implications for any theoretical model attempting to explain the field formation in these objects. We discuss in this contribution some important issues addressed by our observations (e.g., the lower bound of the field strength) and the discovery of some remarkable objects.
In the summer of 2009, an outbreak of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157 (VTEC O157) was identified in visitors to a large petting farm in South East England. The peak attack rate was 6/1000 visitors, and highest in those aged <2 years (16/1000). We conducted a case-control study with associated microbiological investigations, on human, animal and environmental samples. We identified 93 cases; 65 primary, 13 secondary and 15 asymptomatic. Cases were more likely to have visited a specific barn, stayed for prolonged periods and be infrequent farm visitors. The causative organism was identified as VTEC O157 PT21/28 with the same VNTR profile as that isolated in faecal specimens from farm animals and the physical environment, mostly in the same barn. Contact with farm livestock, especially ruminants, should be urgently reviewed at the earliest suspicion of a farm-related VTEC O157 outbreak and appropriate risk management procedures implemented without delay.
The scaling of the flux and maximum energy of laser-driven sheath-accelerated protons has been investigated as a function of laser pulse energy in the range of 15–380 mJ at intensities of 1016–1018 W/cm2. The pulse duration and target thickness were fixed at 40 fs and 25 nm, respectively, while the laser focal spot size and drive energy were varied. Our results indicate that while the maximum proton energy is dependent on the laser energy and laser spot diameter, the proton flux is primarily related to the laser pulse energy under the conditions studied here. Our measurements show that increasing the laser energy by an order of magnitude results in a more than 500-fold increase in the observed proton flux. Whereas, an order of magnitude increase in the laser intensity generated by decreasing the laser focal spot size, at constant laser energy, gives rise to less than a tenfold increase in observed proton flux.
Previously, it has been reported that PMOS capacitors with heavily boron-doped polycrystalline SiGeC gates are less susceptible to boron penetration than those with poly Si gates . Boron appears to accumulate in the poly SiGeC layers during anneals, reducing boron outdiffusion from the gate despite high boron levels in the poly SiGeC at the gate/oxide interface. In this abstract, we report clear evidence of strong boron segregation to polycrystalline SiGeC layers from poly Si, with boron concentration in poly SiGeC (Ge=25%, C=1.5%) increasing to four times that of adjacent poly Si layers. A separate experiment confirms that this result is not due to any SIMS artifacts. Electrical measurements of heavily in-situ doped single layer samples show that the conductivity of poly SiGeC is similar to poly Si and remains roughly constant with annealing at 800°C. However, in a two-layer sample where the poly SiGeC is initially lightly doped and subsequently heavily doped by diffusion by from an adjacent poly Si layer, conductivity appears lower than in poly Si.
The effect of annealing silicon capped pseudomorphic Si0.7865Ge0.21C0.0035 or Si0.998C0.002 layers on silicon substrates in nitrogen or oxygen at 850°C was examined using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Most substitutional carbon is lost from the alloy layers due to carbon out-diffusion rather than from precipitation. The carbon is found to diffuse more rapidly out of the SiGeC layer than the SiC layer after nitrogen and the carbon is found to leave the sample entirely, an effect that is enhanced by oxidation and thin cap layers. All substitutional carbon can be removed from the sample in some cases implying negligible formation of silicon-carbon complexes. Furthermore, it is found that each injected silicon interstitial atom due to oxidation causes the removal of one additional carbon atom for the SiGeC layer.
Substitutional carbon is known to locally reduce silicon self-interstitial concentrations and act as a barrier to self-interstitial migration through the carbon rich regions. A silicon spacer between two carbon rich SiGe layers is fabricated in this work to examine self-interstitial generation in a region that is isolated from self-interstitial formation at the surface or in the silicon bulk. Boron marker layers above, below and in between two SiGeC layers are used to monitor the self-interstitial concentration between the substitutional carbon. No evidence of self- interstitial depletion in the silicon spacer is observed, despite annealing in conditions believed sufficient to allow the self-interstitials to reach and react with surrounding substitutional carbon. Simulations of the self-interstitial and carbon indicate that the silicon self interstitial concentration in the spacer layer can be sustained in part due to a silicon self-interstitial recycling process through a reverse “kick-out” reaction.
During the oxidation of silicon, interstitials are generated at the oxidizing surface and diffuse into the silicon. Boron diffusion was used to map the local interstitial super-saturation, the ratio of interstitial concentration to the equilibrium concentration of interstitials I/I*, versus depth above buried Si0.795Ge0.2C0.005 layers during oxidation. The average interstitial supersaturation at the silicon surface, extrapolated from the depth profiles, is measured as, ∼24 and ∼11.5 for 750°C and 850°C respectively. Using the measured interstitial concentration at the surface, the silicon interstitial injection into the silicon is calculated for oxidation at 750°C and 850°C. Finally, it is found that the surface boundary condition remains fixed over an interstitial injection rate ranging over 4 orders of magnitude.
The local structural information around the germanium atom in boron doped SiGe alloys is important in understanding the dopant diffusion mechanisms. Epitaxial SiGe test structures with B and C markers were grown on Si substrates by using rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD). The local structure around the Ge atom was probed using Ge K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) to determine the effects of the B and C on the Ge sites. The concentration profiles obtained from secondary ion mass spectroscopy are correlated with the Ge XAFS results. The modifications on the local structure around the Ge atoms are revealed from the multiple scattering analyses on the Ge near-neighbors. First and second shell XAFS fits to the B doped SiGe samples indicate a direct evidence of the Ge trapping of the B atoms whereas the C is randomly distributed to the Si lattice sites.
To understand amorphous and structurally disordered materials requires the application of a wide-range of advanced physical probe techniques and herein a combined methodology is outlined. The relatively short-range structural sensitivity of solid state NMR means that it is a core probe technique for characterizing such materials. The aspects of the solid state NMR contribution are emphasized here with examples given from a number of systems, with especial emphasis on the information available from 17O NMR in oxygen-containing materials. 17O NMR data for crystallization of pure sol-gel prepared oxides is compared, with new data presented from In2O3 and Sc2O3. Sol-gel formed oxide mixtures containing silica have been widely studied, but again the role and effect of the other added oxide varies widely. In a ternary ZrO2-TiO2-SiO2 silicate sol-gel the level of Q4 formation is dependent not only on the composition, as expected, but also the nature of the second added oxide. Sol-gel formed phosphates have been much less widely studied than silicates and some 31P NMR data from xerogel, sonogel and melt-quench glasses of the same composition are compared. The effect of small amounts of added antibacterial copper on phosphate glass networks is also explored.
Electron beam irradiation of oxides produces electron trapping states which store excess charge. Thermionic emission of this charge occurs during heating with emission peak temperatures related to binding mechanisms and energies. We present thermionic emission results which show both intrinsic and beam induced trapping states in OC-Al2O3 (sapphire) and sintered alumina. Five states have been identified with thermionic emission peaks at temperatures between -50°C and 500°C. Two states are electron beam induced and occur only for electron beam energies above fixed thresholds. These thresholds appear to correlate to with the Is core electron binding energies for oxygen and aluminum. The emission peaks from the sintered material are about 10 fold greater in intensity and slightly broadened in comparison to the single crystal. This suggests that structure plays an important role in charge trapping. Emission was also extremely sensitive to sample treatments such as annealing before electron irradiation.
Electron beam irradiation at energies between 0.5 and 4 keV has been found to produce defects in oxide materials including SiO2, Al2O3 and ZrO2. These defects trap excess charge in the materials and affect their electronic and optical properties. Measurements of the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission following irradiation provides information on relative defect concentrations, defect creation mechanisms, electron trap binding energies, electron emission mechanisms and annealing properties of these materials. Electron emission during sample heating occurs via a variety of mechanisms including the thermionic emission of excess charge from defects at temperatures characteristic of each trap binding energy. By measuring relative trap concentrations as a function of beam parameters, we have identified electron beam energy thresholds for the creation of some types of defects which correlate with core level electronic transitions. Also, electron emission which occurs during defect annealing or diffusion to a surface shows the conditions for the elimination of defects. The ability to control and characterize defect formation and annihilation provides the possibility of engineering specific surface defect conditions. In addition, defect creation by electronic processes is very selective as compared with momentum transfer in ion beam damage of surfaces.